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Editorial Style Guide

The Chicago Manual of Style is the reference book on editorial style for all communications on behalf of the University of Oregon except AroundtheO and press releases produced by University Communications, both of which follow the Associated Press Stylebook. If you are working remotely, you must connect to the UO virtual private network to access CMOS online. Our dictionary is Merriam-Webster.

Check out Style Guide Quick Tips for the latest on the editorial style guide.

If you have questions or feedback, email editor Matt Cooper, University Communications.


Editorial Style Guide Index

A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z


A

abbreviations and acronyms

  • Spell out the first reference to any university group or program. In subsequent references, phrases such as the committee or the center are usually preferable to abbreviations or acronyms.
  • There are exceptions for well-known acronyms such as the EMU. Consider the audience. See the Chicago Manual of Style's section on when to use abbreviations.

academic degrees

  • Don't capitalize general references to degrees: I have bachelor of arts and master of fine arts degrees. The University of Oregon offers bachelor's, master's, and doctoral degrees.
  • Do not use periods in degree abbreviations: BA, BMus, BArch, MS, DEd, and PhD.
  • Always use an apostrophe in bachelor’s degree, a master’s, etc.: The department offers forty-two master's programs. The graduating class included a total of 500 master's students.
  • The word degree should not follow an abbreviation: The student has a BA in English literature.
  • Include degree received, year of graduation (use an apostrophe () and not a single quote mark ()), and major (lowercase, in parentheses): Alexis Thompson, PhD 23 (psychology).
  • Do not include majors following MBA and JD degrees: Emily Darchuk, MBA 18; Imogen Oliver, JD 21.
  • References to those who attended the UO but did not graduate may include the class with which they entered: David Jones, class of 2007. They can also be referred to as alumna/alumnus, etc.
  • Separate names and degree listings with commas: Thomas Morales, BA 00 (Spanish), MA 04 (English), JD 08. In running text, use a comma after the degree year: Teresa Baker, PhD 15 (physics), hosts a weekly gathering.
  • When a graduate receives lower- and upper-level degrees in the same field: John Doe, BS 06, MS 09 (anthropology).
  • For multiple alumni in running text, use semicolons to separate each: Linda Adams, PhD 12 (political science); Howard Jones, BA 18, MA '20 (architecture), JD 23; Samuel Thomas, BS 01 (biology).
  • For couples, rewrite and reorder names as necessary for clarity of the degree holder(s): Sara and Bob Smith, BS 17 (physical education); Bob and Sara Smith, BS 16 (general science); Sara and Bob Smith are alumni—Sara, a 2016 graduate, has a bachelor's in general science, and Bob, a 2017 graduate, has a bachelor's in physical education.
  • The university offers the following degrees:

Formal

General

Abbreviated

bachelor of arts

bachelor's degree, bachelor's

BA

bachelor of architecture

bachelor's degree, bachelor's

BArch

bachelor of education

bachelor's degree, bachelor's

BEd

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bachelor of fine arts

bachelor's degree, bachelor's

BFA

bachelor of interior architecture

bachelor's degree, bachelor's

BIArch

bachelor of landscape architecture

bachelor's degree, bachelor's

BLA

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bachelor of music

bachelor's degree, bachelor's

BMus

bachelor of music in music education

bachelor's degree, bachelor's

BMME

bachelor of science

bachelor's degree, bachelor's

BS

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master of laws

master's degree, master's

LLM

master of arts

master's degree, master's

MA

master of accounting

master's degree, master's

MActg

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master of architecture

master's degree, master's

MArch

master of business administration

master's degree, master's

MBA

master of community and regional planning

master's degree, master's

MCRP

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master of education

master's degree, master's

MEd

master of fine arts

master's degree, master's

MFA

master of interior architecture

master's degree, master's

MIArch

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master of landscape architecture

master's degree, master's

MLA

master of music

master's degree, master's

MMus

master of nonprofit management

master's degree, master's

MNM

master of public administration

master's degree, master's

MPA

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master of science

master's degree, master's

MS

doctor of education

doctoral degree, doctorate

DEd

doctor of musical arts

doctoral degree, doctorate

DMA

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doctor of jurisprudence

law degree, juris doctor

JD

doctor of philosophy

doctoral degree, doctorate

PhD

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academic and administrative titles

  • Some faculty members have both an academic title, such as professor, and a named title endowed by university supporters. When referring to faculty titles, first check named faculty positions (click sign in with Microsoft and use your Duck ID and password, if necessary; you must have an @uoregon domain email).

    Use these named titles for first reference. For example: Jane Doe’s academic title might be associate professor, but if Jane holds a named position such as James F. and Shirley K. Rippey Chair in Liberal Arts and Sciences, use that named title for first reference. It may precede or follow the faculty member’s name: Jane Doe, James F. and Shirley K. Rippey Chair in Liberal Arts and Sciences, was nominated … or: Evergreen Professor David Davison presented his research recently …

  • On subsequent references, longer named titles can be shortened while retaining capitalization: Doe, Rippey Chair, studies biology …
  • It’s also appropriate to use the academic title on subsequent references, but note it's lowercase when following the name: Jane Doe, an associate professor in the Department of Biology, received a grant
  • Academic titles include:
  • professor
  • associate professor
  • assistant professor
  • senior instructor
  • instructor
  • lecturer
  • professor of practice
  • research professor
  • senior research associate
  • research associate
  • senior research assistant
  • postdoctoral fellow
  • graduate employee
  • fellow
  • Acting, adjunct, interim, courtesy, emerita, emeritus, emerit, or visiting may also be part of the official academic title.
  • Capitalize before the name, lowercase otherwise.
    • Elizabeth Jones, vice president for student life, studied biology.
    • Before the lecture, Vice President Michael Thomas will address the group.
  • An exception is the heading or closing of a letter:

Jane Doe
Assistant Professor

  • When a title is used before a name as a descriptive tag it is lowercased: history professor Alex Reynolds; UO president John Wesley Johnson
  • Don't hyphenate the following titles:
    • vice chair
    • vice chancellor
    • vice president
    • vice provost
    • assistant vice provost
  • Refer to people who oversee academic or administrative units as follows:

Academic or Administrative Unit

Title

area

coordinator

center

director

college

dean

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committee

chair

department

head

institute

director

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museum

director

office

director

professional school

dean

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program

director

vice presidency

vice president

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academic terms

  • Use term as the general reference, and lowercase with fall term, winter term, spring term, and summer term.
  • The law school uses a semester-based calendar: fall semester, spring semester, and summer semester.

acting vs. interim

  • acting: someone filling in for an administrator who is temporarily on leave
  • interim: someone filling in while a permanent replacement is being sought

advisor

  • Not adviser

affirmative action and equal opportunity

African American or Black

  • Capitalize names of racial, linguistic, tribal, religious, and other groups of people.
  • Do not hyphenate.
  • See inclusive language.

age

Alaska Native

  • Capitalize names of racial, linguistic, tribal, religious, and other groups of people.
  • Do not hyphenate.
  • See inclusive language.

alum, alumna, alumnae, alumni, alumnus

Singular

Plural

alumna refers to a woman
alumnus refers to a man
alum is informal and gender neutral

alumnae refers to women only
alumni refers to men or to women and men

  • Alumni is plural and always refers to more than one person. You cannot be an alumni of a university.
  • References to those who attended but did not graduate may include the graduating year of their class: John Doe, class of 2019, received an award...
  • It is also appropriate to identify as an alumnus/alumna someone who attended but did not graduate, per the definition of alumnus/alumna in Merriam-Webster: “a person who has attended or has graduated from a particular school, college, or university.”

ampersand (&) and plus sign (+)

  • Do not use as a replacement for and in reference to UO offices or policies, or in running text: School of Journalism and Communication, Department of Computer and Information Science.
  • When considering an ampersand or plus (+) symbol, follow the style used in official contexts: School of Architecture & Environment, School of Art + Design.
  • The ampersand or plus symbol may be used in the name of a non-university business: AT&T, Wieden+Kennedy.
  • Because the character (&) is also used in HTML code, the ampersand can cause issues in digital stories and web page text.

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apostrophe

  • The apostrophe has three main uses: to indicate the possessive case, to stand in for missing letters or numerals, and—in rare instances—to form the plural of certain expressions: a master's degree, the Williamses' new house, but children's literature.
  • For names ending in s, the possessive is formed with an additional s: Dylan Thomas's poetry, the Ganges's source
  • To avoid ambiguity when writing about letter grades, you may need the apostrophe to distinguish "A's" from the word "As".
  • See Chicago Manual of Style: Use of the apostrophe.

Asian

  • Someone from the Far East, Southeast Asia, India, China, or Korea.
  • Capitalize names of racial, linguistic, tribal, religious, and other groups of people.
  • The way ethnicity is described can be a sensitive matter. If possible, consult with the person in question to see what racial reference they prefer.
  • See inclusive language.

Asian American

  • The term is used to describe a person of Asian birth or descent who lives in the United States.
  • Capitalize names of racial, linguistic, tribal, religious, and other groups of people.
  • Do not hyphenate.
  • The way ethnicity is described can be a sensitive matter. If possible, consult with the person in question to see what racial reference they prefer.
  • See inclusive language.

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B

bachelor’s, bachelor’s degree, BA, BS, BFA

Board of Trustees of the University of Oregon

  • Lowercase board of trustees unless it’s part of the formal name: the board of trustees; the board. Do not use BOT.

book titles

  • Use italics: This year's Common Reading book is Braiding Sweetgrass: Indigenous Wisdom, Scientific Knowledge, and the Teachings of Plants by author Robin Wall Kimmerer.

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C

Caucasian or White

  • Capitalize names of racial, linguistic, tribal, religious, and other groups of people.
  • The way ethnicity is described can be a sensitive matter. If possible, consult with the person in question to see what racial reference they prefer.
  • See inclusive language.

centers, departments, government agencies, institutes, programs, and schools

  • Capitalize only the formal names of centers, departments, government agencies, institutes, programs, and schools. There are exceptions for shortened formal names; for example, the shortened formal name of the Warsaw Sports Marketing Center is the Warsaw Center.

Formal

Informal

University of Oregon

the university

Center for Asian and Pacific Studies

the center

Department of Political Science

the political science department

Oregon Legislative Assembly

the state legislature

  • Some administrative units include the full name of a person. In such cases there are two acceptable formal names.
  •  
  • Only a few offices include University of Oregon in their official names. They also have two references, formal and informal.
  • See schools and colleges.
  •  

Charles H. Lundquist College of Business

  • Lundquist College of Business is preferred for first reference, then Lundquist College. Never LCB.

Chicana, Chicano

  • Capitalize names of racial, linguistic, tribal, religious, and other groups of people.
  • Chicana is used to describe a female of Mexican birth or descent who lives in the United States.
  • Chicano is used to describe a male of Mexican birth or descent who lives in the United States.
  • Spanish rules cannot reasonably determine English usage. Latino/a and Latin@ should be avoided, and used only at the request of the subject of a piece of writing. The same rule applies for the use of Chicano/a.
  • The way ethnicity is described can be a sensitive matter. If possible, consult with the person in question to see what racial reference they prefer.
  • See inclusive language.

class years

comma

  • Use the serial (Oxford) comma: The student posted pictures of animals, the president, and the vice president. See the comma entry in the Chicago Manual of Style index.

commencement

  • capitalize only the official name of the event: I'm supporting the University of Oregon Commencement as a volunteer for commencement staff. Are you going to commencement?

committee(s)

  • Capitalize committee only when part of a formal name: the Safety Advisory Committee.
  • Treat committee as a collective noun taking a singular verb when referring to an academic body: The committee meets every Thursday.

Common Reading

  • Each year, the Common Reading program presents a selection as the focus of a campus-wide discussion.

company names

  • For information on abbreviations, capitalization, and more, see company names in the Chicago Manual of Style index.

course listings

  • See the UO catalog for correct order and style for listing course information such as subject code and number, title, credit, and grading option.

credit

  • Use credits rather than credit hours, hours, term credits, quarter credits, or term hours. To distinguish between a quarter system and a semester system, use quarter credits and semester credits.

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D

Dads' Gates

  • The wrought-iron gates greet Ducks at the north entrance of campus between the Robinson Theatre and McKenzie Hall.

dashes

  • Use an en dash to indicate continuing or inclusive numbers in dates, times, or reference numbers: 50 BC–AD 45, 10:00 a.m.–5:00 p.m.
  • The em dash is longer than a hyphen and indicates a break in the syntax of a sentence: Of the three grading options—graded only, pass/no pass only, either graded or pass/no pass—the last option is the default.
  • Use an em dash when attributing a quote: "You can never be overdressed or overeducated." —Oscar Wilde
  • See the dashes entry in the index of the Chicago Manual of Style.

dates

  • See the dates entry in the index of the Chicago Manual of Style for information on format, punctuation, and more.

degrees

Department of Global Studies

  • Formerly the Department of International Studies

departments

  • Capitalize the formal names of departments and lowercase the informal name: Formal: Department of History, Department of Political Science, Department of English, Clark Honors College. Informal: the history department, the political science department, the English department, the honors college.
  • When referring to a department, also include the school or college. (e.g., James Parker is a professor in the Department of Biology, which is in the College of Arts and Sciences.)
  • Consult the University of Oregon catalog for the correct name of departments.

disabled

  • Refer to people with disabilities only when it is clearly pertinent: person who is visually impaired, person who is speech impaired, person who has hearing loss
  • Avoid using the handicapped, the disabled, or the differently abled.
  • Avoid descriptions that connote pity: afflicted with, suffers from, confined to a wheelchair.

doctor, dr.

  • Don't use the courtesy title Doctor or Dr. unless the person holds a medical degree (e.g., MD, DDS, DVM).

dorm/dormitory

  • Use residence hall instead.

Duck Bucks

Duck ID

  • The login credentials for most services at the University of Oregon (e.g., email, Canvas, and the UO’s wireless network and VPN services).

Ducks

  • When referring to the various student sports teams on campus, the correct terms to use are the Oregon Ducks or the Ducks.
  • When using the team name as an adjective, use Ducks, not Duck: Ducks fans (i.e., fans of the Ducks) crowded the stands in Autzen Stadium.
  • One UO attendee, alumnus, or alumna is considered a Duck, but one is not a "Duck fan." The only exception is in the official name of an organization, such as the Duck Athletic Fund.

DuckWeb

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E

Earth, the earth

  • Martha Thompson works in the earth sciences department.
  • Capitalize when used as the proper name of the planet: The astronauts returned to Earth.

emerit, emeritus, emeriti, emerita, emeritae

emerit (Professor Emerit, Professors Emerit) is the default gender-neutral honorary title denoting retirement, unless a faculty member prefers to use an alternate version (see below). The plural is emerits (A group of one hundred university professors attended the conference, ten of whom were emerits.).

  • Honorary titles following a faculty member's name are not capitalized: Alan Anderson, professor emeritus of Romance languages, but Professor Emerita Mary Smith.
  • Singular: emerita refers to a woman; emeritus refers to a man
  • Plural: emeritae refers to women only; emeriti refer to men or to women and men

Erb Memorial Union

  • EMU is acceptable on first reference based on the audience.

exhibitions and works of art

  • Titles of world’s fairs and other large-scale exhibitions and fairs are capitalized but not italicized. Smaller exhibitions (e.g., at museums) are italicized: the New York World’s Fair, but: a remarkable exhibition, Motor Cycles, was mounted at the Guggenheim Museum.
  • For more information, see exhibitions in the Chicago Manual of Style.

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F

faculty

  • Faculty refers to a group of faculty members and multiple faculty members. Either is acceptable: The faculty is present and The faculty are present.
  • Faculty member is the singular form: The faculty member finished a research project.

fellow

  • Capitalize only when used in reference to a specific, named fellowship: Karen Douglas was recently named a Fulbright Fellow. The assistant professor was named a new fellow of the American Academy of Science.

fieldwork

first-year student

  • Use instead of freshman/freshmen when possible, although there are certain contexts that require referring to the freshman/freshmen class.

flier vs. flyer

  • Flier is generally a person who flies.
  • Flyer is generally a paper handout.

full-time equivalent

  • Enrollment and employment statistics are often stated in terms of full-time equivalents (FTE). Use only one digit after the decimal point.
    • 1.0 FTE is full time
    • 0.5 FTE is half time
  • FTE is acceptable on first reference.

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G

game day

  • Two words as a noun: Please check the Autzen Stadium website for information about where to park for game day.
  • Hyphenate as an adjective: Be sure to share photos of your game-day experience.
  • Can be modified as a proper noun: ESPN’s College GameDay is a popular pregame show.

GE vs. GTF

  • Use graduate employee (GE) for teaching, research, and administrative graduate assistantships (not Graduate Teaching Fellow or GTF).

gender, sex

  • Gender and sex are not the same thing. For more, see the usage guide in Merriam-Webster and Using Pronouns in the Division of Student Life.

genus and species

  • Whether in lists or in running text, the Latin names of species of plants and animals are italicized. For more, see the entry genus and specific epithet in the Chicago Manual of Style.

geographic regions

  • Capitalize north, south, east, and west when they are part of specific geographic regions or official names of organizations: The Pacific Northwest, the Far West, the West Eugene Neighborhood Association, West Coast, Oregon Coast.
  • Lowercase north, south, east, and west when they are used as general compass directions: the west entrance, the western United States, west Eugene.

Go Ducks!

  • No comma after Go.

groups of people

  • The names of racial, linguistic, tribal, religious, and other groups of people are capitalized. Don’t hyphenate them.
  • Spanish rules cannot reasonably determine English usage. Latino/a and Latin@ should be avoided, and used only at the request of the subject of a piece of writing. The same rule applies for the use of Chicano/a.
  • Greeks (capitalized) are both people from Greece and members of fraternities and sororities. The latter belong to Greek-letter organizations.
  • See inclusive language.

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H

handicapped

hashtag

  • Use of the symbol (#) in running text is acceptable.

Hayward Field at the University of Oregon

  • Hayward Field at the University of Oregon — on first reference, avoid use of "new" Hayward Field
  • Hayward Field — subsequent references, when possible, avoid use of "Hayward" as a stand-alone reference
  • Historic Hayward Field — refers to Hayward Field before construction started in 2018, avoid use of "old" Hayward Field
  • Hayward Hall — interactive exhibits housed on the east side of Hayward Field

health care

Hispanic

  • Capitalize names of racial, linguistic, tribal, religious, and other groups of people.
  • The term is used to describe people in the United States who are descendants of countries of Latin America and Spain.
  • The way ethnicity is described can be a sensitive matter. If possible, consult with the person in question to see what racial reference they prefer.
  • See inclusive language.

honors college

hyphens

  • Don't hyphenate vice president and similar compound titles.
  • Do not hyphenate adverbs ending in -ly followed by an adjective: a highly complex issue.
  • When adjectival compounds follow the noun they modify, hyphenation is usually unnecessary. For example: Adrian is a world-class athlete. The stadium is world class.
  • See The Chicago Manual of Style's hyphenation guide.

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I

inclusive language

  • The language we use when speaking about diversity and inclusivity matters. Use this as a point of reference for the way we communicate about diversity and inclusivity. It is not meant to be rigid, exhaustive, or definitive. The goal is to create a flexible framework for using language that is empowering and respectful.
     
  • Look for authentic ways to include, portray, and integrate equity and inclusion issues and diverse populations into stories, written materials, websites, and all other communications.
     
  • Do not use offensive and derogatory terms, including such terms derived from the identity of a specific group (such as Indian giver, gypped, or Jewed), outdated terms (such as crippled), or overly clinical or medicalized terminology (such as homosexual). If you are uncertain of whether a term is derogatory, seek appropriate input.
     
  • Terminology that refers to attributes or identities such as race, gender, sexual orientation, socioeconomic status, disability, religion, age, or immigration or veteran status can adversely overemphasize an identity, feed stereotypes, or be discriminatory.
     
  • Conversely, there are times when noting a person’s identity or attribute can be an important affirmation and recognition and needs to be included.
     
  • Consider context. For example, would you include a particular characteristic or identity for any group? What is being accomplished by noting the characteristic or identity? Would you use the term white professor or heterosexual musician in this specific context?
     
  • If it is relevant and important to distinguish elements of a person’s identity, focus on the person, not the identity. For example:
     
    • A baby with Down syndrome not a Down’s baby.
    • A person living on a subsistence-level income instead of Jane Doe is low-income.
       
  • When possible, be as specific as you can to describe people. For example:
     
    •  Chinese rather than Asian
    •  Guatemalan instead of Hispanic
    •  Lesbian or transgender rather than LGBTQIA.
    • When in doubt, ask a person how they would like to be identified, which includes what pronouns they prefer.
    • Consult with the appropriate style guide for the type of writing you are doing to determine how best to identify the proper names of nationalities, peoples, and races.
       
  • Make room for a person’s complex identity and the complexity of different communities. For example:
     
    • A veteran or a person who uses a wheelchair may also be part of the lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender communities.
    • Muslims, Latinos, Jews, and others may be from many different races, ethnicities, or geographic origins.
       
  • Weigh the use of general or specific terms when referencing places of worship, events, or holidays, so as not to exclude any group or perspective, but be specific when the instance requires. For example:
     
    • When discussing religious buildings or institutions generally, use a general term such as place of worship or house of prayer; if a religion is specified, use the particular term (such as mosque, synagogue, church, chapel, and so forth).
    • When discussing the calendar or date ranges, reference the season of the year (e.g., winter) rather than a specific holiday; if a religious holiday is specified, use the particular term (such as Christmas, Rosh Hashanah, or Eid al-Fitr).

internet

  • Do not capitalize.

IntroDUCKtion

  • The University of Oregon's orientation program for new students.

italics

  • Italics are used for titles of books, genera and species, long plays, periodicals, movies, newspapers, operas and other long musical compositions, ships, and works of art: Woolf's To the Lighthouse; Bizet's Carmen; O'Keeffe's Cow's Skull, Red, White, and Blue; Shaw's Major Barbara; Wertmuller's Seven Beauties
  • Titles of television and radio series are italicized: National Public Radio's All Things Considered. But titles of individual episodes are placed in quotation marks: "Eye of the Beholder," Rod Serling's classic episode of The Twilight Zone, was a high point for the series.
  • Some musical compositions are known by their generic titles—symphony, quartet, nocturne—and often a number or key or both. Such names are capitalized but not italicized: Beethoven's Piano Sonata No. 14 in C-sharp minor, Op. 25, but Moonlight Sonata
  • For more, see the italics entry in the index of the Chicago Manual of Style.

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L

Latin honors

The terms are always lowercase and not italicized: Jami Jones graduated summa cum laude.

Latin Honor

Meaning

Percentile Rankings

cum laude

with honors

Top 10 percent

magna cum laude

with high honors

Top 5 percent

summa cum laude

with highest honors

Top 2 percent

Latinx, Latino/a, Latine, Latina

lectures

  • The titles of lecture series and individual lecture titles are capitalized in headline style.
  • The titles of lecture series are not italicized. Individual lecture titles are enclosed in quotation marks: We went to the African American Workshop Lecture Series. The lecture was called “Teaching for Tomorrow.”
  • See italics.

lists

  • Short, simple lists are usually better run in, especially if the introductory text and the items in the list together form a sentence. Lists that require typographic prominence, that are relatively long, or that contain multiple levels should be set vertically.
  • A run-in list: The qualifications are as follows: a doctorate in physics, five years’ experience in a national laboratory, and an ability to communicate technical matter to a lay audience. For punctuation, see Run-in lists in the Chicago Manual of Style.
  • Vertical lists are best introduced by a grammatically complete sentence, followed by a colon. There are two basic types: (1) unordered, in which the items are introduced by a bullet or other such marker or by nothing at all, and (2) ordered, in which items are introduced by numbers or letters. See vertical listscapitalization, punctuation, and format in the Chicago Manual of Style.

Lyllye Reynolds-Parker Black Cultural Center

  • Use the official name for first reference.
  • For second and subsequent references, use Black Cultural Center, the center, or BCC.

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M

mailing address

  • Spell out state names unless space is restricted or when giving a mailing address: The university is located in Eugene, Oregon.
  • Use the two-letter United States Postal Service abbreviations (e.g., OR) in mailing addresses; don’t insert a comma between the city and the state: Direct inquiries to the Office of Affirmative Action and Equal Opportunity, 474 Oregon Hall; send mail to 5221 University of Oregon, Eugene OR 97403-5221.
  • See UO Addresses/How to Address UO Mail.
  • For more, visit mailing addresses: postal vs. standard abbreviations in the Chicago Manual of Style.

majors/minors

  • Lowercase except for proper nouns or adjectives: Whitney has a major in Japanese and a minor in dance.

master’s, MA, MS, MBA, MFA

McArthur Court

  • Do not use "historic." Mac Court can be acceptable, consider context.

Mexican American

  • Capitalize names of racial, linguistic, tribal, religious, and other groups of people.
  • Do not hyphenate.
  • The term is used to describe an American of full or partial Mexican descent.
  • The way ethnicity is described can be a sensitive matter. If possible, consult with the person in question to see what racial reference they prefer.
  • See inclusive language.

movie titles

  • Italics are used: Wertmuller's Seven Beauties.
  • See titles.

musical composition titles

  • Italics are used for titles of operas, oratorios, tone poems, and other long musical compositions: Bizet's Carmen.
  • The abbreviation op., for opus, is set in roman and lowercased: Sonata in E-flat, op. 31, no. 3; Sonata op. 31
  • Use double quotation marks before and after titles of songs and other shorter musical compositions: “All You Need Is Love” is a song by the Beatles.
  • See titles. For more, see Operas, songs, and the like in the Chicago Manual of Style.

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N

named faculty positions

  • Use named titles for first reference to faculty members with named positions. These faculty members can be found in this Smartsheet; to access, click "Sign in with Microsoft" and use your Duck ID and password, if necessary; you must have an @uoregon.edu email.
    • If Jane Doe’s academic title is associate professor but Jane holds a named position such as James F. and Shirley K. Rippey Chair in Liberal Arts and Sciences, use the named title first. It may precede or follow the faculty member’s name: Jane Doe, James F. and Shirley K. Rippey Chair in Liberal Arts and Sciences, was nominated . . . or: Evergreen Professor David Davison presented research . . .
  • On subsequent references, longer named titles can be shortened while retaining capitalization: Doe, Rippey Chair, attended . . .
  • It’s also appropriate to use the academic title on subsequent references, lowercase when following the name: Johnson, an associate professor, spoke recently . . .

newspaper titles

  • Italics are used for titles of newspapers: the Register-Guard (note the name is hyphenated), the New York Times.
  • When newspapers and periodicals are mentioned in text, an initial the, even if part of the official title, is lowercased (unless it begins a sentence) and not italicized: the Register-Guard (note the name is hyphenated), the New York Times.
  • See titles.

North African

  • Capitalize names of racial, linguistic, tribal, religious, and other groups of people.
  • Do not hyphenate.
  • The term is used to describe a person from the group of Mediterranean countries situated in the northern-most region of the African continent.
  • The way ethnicity is described can be a sensitive matter. If possible, consult with the person in question to see what racial reference they prefer.
  • See inclusive language.

numbers

  • In nontechnical contexts, Chicago advises spelling out whole numbers from zero through one hundred and certain round multiples of those numbers. For more, visit Numbers.

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O

Oregon Bach Festival

  • On second reference, OBF or the festival is acceptable.

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P

Pac-12

  • Common abbreviation for the Pacific-12 Conference.
  • Do not put Pac in all caps.

Pacific Islander

  • Capitalize names of racial, linguistic, tribal, religious, and other groups of people.
  • Do not hyphenate.
  • The term is used to describe a person having origins in any of the original peoples of Hawaii, Guam, Samoa, or other Pacific Islands.
  • The way ethnicity is described can be a sensitive matter. If possible, consult with the person in question to see what racial reference they prefer.
  • See inclusive language.

Pacific Northwest

  • Capitalize when talking about the specific geographic region.
  • PNW is acceptable in some contexts; consider audience.

PathwayOregon

  • One word, no space, note capitalization.

periodical titles

  • Italics are used for titles of periodicals: the Journal of the American Medical Association.
  • See titles.

Phil and Penny Knight Campus for Accelerating Scientific Impact

  • Knight Campus is acceptable on second reference.

play titles

  • Italics are used for titles of plays: She Kills Monsters is being staged in the Miller Theatre Complex.
  • See titles.

plural words

  • Here are some words whose singular or plural forms can be troublesome:

Singular

Plural

Reference

alumnus

alumni

men or men and women
See alumna, alumnae, alumni, alumnus

alumna

alumnae

women
See alumna, alumnae, alumni, alumnus

colloquium

colloquia or colloquiums

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curriculum

curricula

 

emerit

emerits

gender-neutral
See emeritus, emeriti, emerita, emeritae

emeritus

emeriti

men or men and women
See emeritus, emeriti, emerita, emeritae

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emerita

emeritae

women
See emeritus, emeriti, emerita, emeritae

emeritus professor

emeritus professors

men or men and women
See emeritus, emeriti, emerita, emeritae

faculty

faculties

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faculty member

faculty members

 

freshman

freshmen

men or men and women
See freshman, freshmen

freshman class

freshman classes

classes for freshmen (not freshmen classes)
See freshman, freshmen

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practicum

practicums

 

professor emeritus

professors emeriti

 

staff

staffs

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staff member

staff members

 

woman athlete

women athletes

 

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poem titles

  • Titles of most poems are set in roman type and enclosed in quotation marks. A very long poetic work, especially one constituting a book, is italicized: Robert Frost’s poem “The Housekeeper.”
  • See titles.

programs

  • Capitalize the full name of official programs or projects: Creative Writing Program, but Common Reading program.
  • Always lowercase program when the word stands alone or when using only part of the formal name.

pronouns

  1. Omit the pronoun: The programmer should update the records (works only if there is one programmer).
  2. Repeat the noun, but not too much.
  3. Use a plural antecedent: Programmers should update the records.
  4. Use an article: A student accused of cheating must actively waive the right to have a guidance counselor present (instead of “his or her right”).
  5. Use the pronoun one. An actor in New York is likely to earn more than one in Paducah.
  6. Use the pronoun who. Employers presume that if an applicant can’t write well, he won’t be a good employee becomes Employers presume that an applicant who can’t write well won’t be a good employee.
  7. Use imperative mode: A lifeguard must keep a close watch over children while he is monitoring the pool becomes Keep a close watch over children while monitoring the pool.
  8. Use he or she in moderation.
  9. Recast the sentence.

punctuation

  • See the entry on punctuation in the index of the Chicago Manual of Style.

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Q

quarters, terms

  • Lowercase academic quarters: spring quarter, winter quarter.
  • See academic terms.

quotation marks

  • Quotation marks are used for titles of research papers, dissertations, and other articles; chapters; speeches; and other shorter works. The title of my dissertation is “Examining Patterns and Predictors of Response to Mathematics Intervention.” Did you hear Martin Luther King Jr.’s “I Have a Dream” speech?
  • Informal titles of speeches do not use quotation marks: the annual State of the Union address, the Gettysburg Address, Franklin Roosevelt’s second inaugural address.
  • See the entry for quotation marks in the index of the Chicago Manual of Style.

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R

rankings

  • Use no. as the abbreviation for number to indicate position or rank: The UO College of Education Special Education Program is ranked no. 1 in US News and World Report’s annual rankings of graduate schools in education.

residence hall

  • Use instead of dorm/dormitory.

rooms and spaces

  • The word room is often unnecessary in addresses: 101 Chapman Hall
  • If you use it after a room name, it should be capitalized: Walnut Room, Erb Memorial Union

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S

School of Computer and Data Sciences

School of Planning, Public Policy and Management

  • Note the use of one comma. There are only two items in the series: (1) planning, (2) public policy and (public) management.

schools and colleges

Formal Name

Second Reference

Building

College of Arts and Sciences

CAS

Willie and Donald Tykeson Hall

College of Design

the college, the design college

Lawrence Hall

College of Education

COE

HEDCO Education Building

Lundquist College of Business

Lundquist College (never LCB)

Lillis Hall (the Lillis Business Complex comprises Peterson, Anstett, Chiles, and Lillis halls)

Robert D. Clark Honors College

Clark Honors College, then CHC

Chapman Hall

School of Journalism and Communication

SOJC

Allen Hall

School of Law

Oregon Law

William W. Knight Law Center

School of Music and Dance

SOMD

MarAbel B. Frohnmayer Music Building

School of Computer and Data Sciences

SCDS

College of Arts and Sciences

semester

  • Use semester as the general reference to any academic semester at the School of Law.

ships

  • Italics are used for ships: The Oregon Institute of Marine Biology operates the R/V Pluteus, a 42-foot aluminum-hull trawler.
  • For more, see the italics entry in the index of the Chicago Manual of Style.

slash

  • See the entry on slashes in the index of the Chicago Manual of Style.

staff

  • Staff refers to a collective body of people, is a singular noun, and requires a singular verb unless there's more than one staff: Welcome to our staff. Some staffs have thirty employees, some only one.
  • Use staff member (singular) or staff members (plural) to refer to individuals: Do you need one staff member or two this weekend? Our staff members are always ready to help you.

start-up

state names

student worker

student-athlete

subject codes

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T

telephone numbers

  • Use hyphens only, not parentheses: 541-346-XXXX.
  • Use of the on‑campus five-digit number (6 + last four digits) is acceptable for internal communications but use the ten-digit number otherwise.

The Ballmer Institute for Children's Behavioral Health

  • Lowercase "the" for second, subsequent, and mid-sentence references: On March 1, the University of Oregon announced the establishment of the Ballmer Institute for Children’s Behavioral Health. Also: the Ballmer Institute, the institute

the Duck

The Duck Store

theater

  • Use theater except for the names of theaters that use the variant spelling: Robinson Theatre, University Theatre, and James F. Miller Theatre Complex. Also: Department of Theatre Arts, but in that department one studies theater arts.

time of day

titles

  • Follow headline style when capitalizing the first letters of words in titles.
  • Capitalize the first letter of all other words except for those functioning as articles, prepositions, and some conjunctions: A River Runs Through It (the preposition "through" is emphasized), Rebel without a Cause, Four Theories concerning the Gospel according to Matthew.
  • When newspapers and periodicals are mentioned in text, an initial the, even if part of the official title, is lowercased (unless it begins a sentence) and not italicized: the Register-Guard, the New York Times.
  • Capitalize formal names of academic courses per standard capitalization rules for titles (do not italicize or place in quotation marks): Introduction to Biological Anthropology has no prerequisite.
  • Italicize titles of television series: The Twilight Zone.
  • Video game titles are treated like movies: Nintendo’s Mario Bros.
  • Italics are used for titles of paintings, drawings, photographs, statues, and other works of art: The painted aluminum piece Overlap, by Mel Katz, is on display in the Jordan Schnitzer Museum of Art.
  • Titles of theses and dissertations appear in quotation marks—not in italics; otherwise, they are cited like books.
  • See academic and administrative titles, book titles, movie titles, musical composition titles, periodical titles, play titles, poem titles, video game titles.
  • For more, see capitalization of titles of works—general principles in the Chicago Manual of Style.

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U

United States, USA, US

  • The abbreviation is US, not U.S. Use USA only in titles or within quoted material.

University Health Services

University of Oregon

  • Spell out the first reference to the University of Oregon. Use the UO, Oregon, or the university to abbreviate subsequent references. Use of "U of O" and other variations are acceptable when used in quoted material: Denise, who is applying to schools in the Pacific Northwest, says: "My top choice is U of O."
  • See mailing address.

University of Oregon Alumni Association

  • On second reference: the alumni association, the association.

University of Oregon Athletics

  • Second and subsequent references: athletics, UO athletics, the athletics department
  • Team names are lowercase: The University of Oregon Ducks football team went undefeated last season. The Oregon women’s basketball program is ranked No. 1 in the nation. Ducks softball and baseball start in the spring.

University of Oregon Foundation

  • On second reference: the foundation.

University of Oregon Libraries

  • UO Libraries is also acceptable.
  • The name of its building is the Knight Library.

University of Oregon Portland

  • From the time the law school was established in Portland in the 1880s, the UO has offered academic and research programs in Portland that focus on hands-on learning, professional mentorship, and connection to businesses, nonprofits, and civic organizations.
  • All operations in Portland are moving to a new campus, with completion expected by fall 2024. Programs are currently housed in the White Stag Block, or 109 NW Naito buildings.
  • UO Portland is acceptable on second reference.

university-wide

  • Hyphenate when used as an adjective: the university-wide event.

UO Online

UOmail

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W

well-being

work-study

works of art

  • Italics are used for titles of paintings, drawings, photographs, statues, and other works of art: The painted aluminum piece Overlap, by Mel Katz, is on display in the Jordan Schnitzer Museum of Art.
  • The names of works of antiquity (whose creators are often unknown) are not italicized: the Venus de Milo.
  • See titles.

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Y

years

  • Use an en dash (–) between the first and second number to denote inclusive dates in a range: 2016–17. Use "to" when you use "from": I served on the committee from 1978 to 1988, but I was gone for the 1980–83 period.
  • When abbreviating the year, use an apostrophe () and not a single quote mark (): Tyler Smith, BA 87 (psychology).
  • Refer to The Chicago Manual of Style for other rules on writing inclusive years.
  • See class years.

Z

zebrafish

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