Editorial Style Guide

The Chicago Manual of Style is the standard reference book on style used by the University of Oregon.

Our standard dictionary is Merriam-Webster.

Follow The Associated Press Stylebook when writing for AroundtheO.

To submit content for editing, visit communications.uoregon.edu, click "Propose a Project," and select "Editing or Proofreading" in the request field.

If you have questions or feedback, email editor Matt Cooper, University Communications.


Editorial Style Guide Index

What's New |  A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z


What's New

Recent additions to the style guide:

World Athletics Championships Oregon22

The international track-and-field competition coming to Hayward Field this summer is the World Athletics Championships Oregon22. Shorthand cannot be used in publications.


A

abbreviations and acronyms

  • Spell out the first reference to any university group or program. In subsequent references, phrases such as the committee or the center are usually preferable to abbreviations or acronyms.
  • There are exceptions, of course, for well-known acronyms such as the EMU. Consider the audience. For guidance, consult the Chicago Manual of Style's section on when to use abbreviations.

academic degrees

  • Don't capitalize general references to degrees: I have bachelor of arts and master of fine arts degrees. The University of Oregon offers bachelor's, master's, and doctoral degrees.
  • Do not use periods in degree abbreviations: BA, BMus, BArch, MS, DEd, and PhD.
  • Use an apostrophe in bachelor’s degree, a master’s, etc.
  • The word degree should not follow an abbreviation: She has a BA in English literature.
  • The title "Dr." is reserved for people with medical degrees.
  • The university is authorized to offer the following degrees:
  • Formal General Abbreviated
    bachelor of arts bachelor's degree, bachelor's BA
    bachelor of architecture bachelor's degree, bachelor's BArch
    bachelor of education bachelor's degree, bachelor's BEd
    bachelor of fine arts bachelor's degree, bachelor's BFA
    bachelor of interior architecture bachelor's degree, bachelor's BIArch
    bachelor of landscape architecture bachelor's degree, bachelor's BLA
    bachelor of music bachelor's degree, bachelor's BMus
    bachelor of music in music education bachelor's degree, bachelor's BMME
    bachelor of science bachelor's degree, bachelor's BS
    master of laws master's degree, master's LLM
    master of arts master's degree, master's MA
    master of accounting master's degree, master's MActg
    master of architecture master's degree, master's MArch
    master of business administration master's degree, master's MBA
    master of community and regional planning master's degree, master's MCRP
    master of education master's degree, master's MEd
    master of fine arts master's degree, master's MFA
    master of interior architecture master's degree, master's MIArch
    master of landscape architecture master's degree, master's MLA
    master of music master's degree, master's MMus
    master of nonprofit management master's degree, master's MNM
    master of public administration master's degree, master's MPA
    master of science master's degree, master's MS
    doctor of education doctoral degree, doctorate DEd
    doctor of musical arts doctoral degree, doctorate DMA
    doctor of jurisprudence law degree, juris doctor JD
    doctor of philosophy doctoral degree, doctorate PhD
     
  • See alumna, alumnae, alumni, alumnus, class years.

    academic terms

    • Use term as the general reference, and lowercase with fall term, winter term, spring term, and summer term.
    • An exception: the law school uses a semester-based calendar: fall semester, spring semester, and summer semester.

    academic and administrative titles

    • When referring to faculty titles, first check named faculty positions (click sign in with Microsoft and use your Duck ID and password, if necessary; you must have an @uoregon domain email).

      Use these named titles for first reference. For example: Jane Doe’s academic title might be associate professor, but if Jane holds a named position such as Evergreen Professor, use that named title for first reference: Evergreen Professor Jane Doe … or Jane Doe, an Evergreen Professor in the College of Education, was nominated

      It’s appropriate to use the academic title on second reference, but note it's lowercase when following the name: Associate Professor Jane Doe of the College of Education, or Jane Doe, an associate professor in the College of Education

    • Consult the official, university-conferred title:
    • professor
    • associate professor
    • assistant professor
    • senior instructor
    • instructor
    • lecturer
    • senior research associate
    • research associate
    • senior research assistant
    • postdoctoral fellow
    • graduate employee
    • fellow
    • Acting, adjunct, courtesy, emerita or emeritus, or visiting may also be part of the official academic title.
    • Capitalize formal titles such as chancellor, chair, dean or provost when they precede a name. Lowercase elsewhere.
      • Kevin Marbury, vice president for [not of] student life, studied biology.
      • Before the lecture, Vice President Kevin Marbury will address the group.
    • An exception is in the heading or closing of a letter:

    Keith Kirby

    Assistant Professor

    • When a title is used before a name as a descriptive tag it is lowercased: history professor Andrea Marcovicci; UO president John Wesley Johnson
    • Don't hyphenate the following titles:
      • vice chair
      • vice chancellor
      • vice president
      • vice provost
    • Refer to people who oversee academic or administrative units as follows:
    • Academic or Administrative Unit Title
      area coordinator
      center director
      college dean
      committee chair
      department head
      institute director
      museum director
      office director
      professional school dean
      program director
      vice presidency vice president

    acting vs. interim

    • acting: Someone filling in for an administrator who is temporarily on leave.
    • interim: Someone filling in while a permanent replacement is being sought.

    advisor

    • Not adviser

    affect vs. effect

    • Affect means to influence or change when used as a verb: The drug will affect his mood.
    • Effect is usually a noun, meaning result, reaction, or outcome: The effect of the drug was intoxicating.

    affirmative action and equal opportunity

    African American or Black

    • Capitalize names of racial, linguistic, tribal, religious, and other groups of people.
    • Do not hyphenate.
    • See inclusive language.

    Alaska Native

    • Capitalize names of racial, linguistic, tribal, religious, and other groups of people.
    • Do not hyphenate.
    • See inclusive language.

    alumna, alumnae, alumni, alumnus

    • Singular Plural
      alumna refers to a woman
      alumnus refers to a man
      alum is informal and gender neutral
      alumnae refers to women only
      alumni refers to men or to women and men
    • Alumni is plural and always refers to more than one person. You cannot be an alumni of a university.
    • References to those who attended but did not graduate may include the graduating year of their class: John Doe, class of 2019, received an award...
    • It is also appropriate to identify as an alumnus/alumna someone who attended but did not graduate, per the definition of alumnus/alumna in Merriam-Webster: “a person who has attended or has graduated from a particular school, college, or university.”

    a.m., p.m.

    ampersand (&)

    • Do not use as a replacement for and in reference to UO offices or policies, or in running text: School of Journalism and Communication, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    • When considering an ampersand or plus (+) symbol, follow the style used in official contexts: School of Architecture & Environment, School of Art + Design.
    • The ampersand or plus symbol may be used in the name of a nonuniversity business: AT&T, Wieden+Kennedy.
    • Use of the ampersand can cause issues in digital stories and web page text because the character (&) is used in HTML code for elements of the web.

    apostrophe

    • Use apostrophes for possessive nouns.
    • Things as well as people can be possessive: a master's degree, a month's pay, today's New York Times
    • In most cases, the possessive of plural nouns is formed by adding an apostrophe only (except for a few irregular plurals that do not end in s): the puppies' paws, the Williamses' new house, but children's literature
    • For names ending in s, the possessive is formed with an additional s: Dylan Thomas's poetry, the Ganges's source
    • His, its, hers, theirs, yours, ours, and whose are possessive pronouns that don't contain apostrophes. It's is not a possessive pronoun; it's a contraction of it is.
    • Don't use apostrophes in plural nouns, including in dates such as 1870s and 1990s.
    • The only time you need to use an apostrophe in forming a plural is to avoid ambiguity: if you're writing about letter grades, you may need the apostrophe to distinguish A's from the word As.

    app

    • Short for application, a program that runs inside another service.
    • App acceptable in all references.

    Asian

    • Capitalize names of racial, linguistic, tribal, religious, and other groups of people.
    • Someone from the Far East, Southeast Asia, India, China, or Korea.
    • The way ethnicity is described can be a sensitive matter. If possible, consult with the person in question to see what racial reference he/she prefers.
    • See inclusive language.

    Asian American

    • Capitalize names of racial, linguistic, tribal, religious, and other groups of people.
    • Do not hyphenate.
    • The term is used to describe a person of Asian birth or descent who lives in the United States.
    • The way ethnicity is described can be a sensitive matter. If possible, consult with the person in question to see what racial reference he/she prefers.
    • See inclusive language.

    ASUO

    • Abbreviation for Associated Students of the University of Oregon.
    • Refers to student government of the University of Oregon.
    • ASUO is acceptable on second reference.

    at this point in time

    • Wordy. Omit or use now, currently, or at present.

    Return to the top »


    B

    bachelor’s, bachelor’s degree, BA, BS, BFA

    BC, AD, BCE, CE

    before vs. prior

    • Before is correct when used as a preposition: Take algebra before you take calculus
    • Prior is correct when used as an adjective meaning earlier in time or place: Prior approval is required.

    biannual

    • Occurs twice a year; semiannual.

    biennial

    • Occurs every two years.

    bimonthly

    • Every other month.
    • Semimonthly means twice a month.

    biweekly

    • Occurs every two weeks.

    Black or African American

    Blue-ray

    Bluetooth

    • A standard for short-range wireless transmissions, such as headsets, that enable hands-free use of cellphones.
    • Note capitalization.

    Board of Trustees of the University of Oregon

    • Lowercase board of trustees unless it’s part of a formal name: the Board of Trustees of the University of Oregon; the board of trustees; the board.

    book titles

    • Italics are used for titles of books: Woolf's To the Lighthouse.
    • Generic terms such as foreword, preface, acknowledgments, introduction, appendix, bibliography, glossary, and index, whether used in cross-references or in reference to another work, are lowercased and not italicized.
    • The words chapter, part, appendix, table, figure, and the like are lowercased and spelled out in text: The range is presented numerically in table 4.2 and diagrammed in figure 4.1.
    • See titles.

    bottom line

    • Rewrite and use result or outcome: What result do you expect?

    bulleted list

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    C

    café

    campus references

    • Spell out the first reference to the University of Oregon. Use the UO, Oregon, or the university to abbreviate subsequent references. Because of its informality, the abbreviation the UO as a noun should not be overused.
    • Univ. of Ore., U of O, U. of O., U.O., and the University are not acceptable.
    • When referring to the university’s programs in Portland (not the building), on first reference use University of Oregon in Portland. On second reference, the UO in Portland is acceptable.
    • To describe the facility that houses the University of Oregon in Portland, use White Stag Block.
    • See mailing address.

    catalog [not catalogue]

    • The publications that list official University of Oregon academic policies and requirements, faculty members, and courses are called catalogs.
    • The master course list maintained in the Office of the Registrar's Banner system is also referred to as the catalog. It contains a record of course changes and fluctuating details such as instructors' names and grading options for majors.

    cellphone

    • One word, do not hyphenate.

    campuswide

    • One word, do not hyphenate.

    Caucasian or White

    • Capitalize names of racial, linguistic, tribal, religious, and other groups of people.
    • The way ethnicity is described can be a sensitive matter. If possible, consult with the person in question to see what racial reference he/she prefers.
    • See inclusive language.

    centers, departments, government agencies, institutes, programs, and schools

    • Capitalize only the formal names of centers, departments, government agencies, institutes, programs, and schools.
    • Don’t capitalize words that aren’t part of the formal names.
    • Formal Informal
      University of Oregon the university
      Center for Asian and Pacific Studies the center
      School of Music and Dance the music school
      Department of Political Science the political science department
      Oregon Legislative Assembly the state legislature
    • Some administrative units include the full name of a person. In such cases there are two acceptable formal names.
    • Formal Informal
      Charles H. Lundquist College of Business the Lundquist College or the college
      Robert Donald Clark Honors College the honors college or the college
      Robert D. Clark Honors College the honors college or the college
      Clark Honors College the honors college
    • Only a few offices include University of Oregon in their official names. They also have two references, formal and informal.
    • Formal Informal
      University of Oregon Alumni Association the association
      the Alumni Association the association
      University of Oregon Foundation the foundation
      Board of Trustees of the University of Oregon the board

    Charles H. Lundquist College of Business

    • Acceptable formal name: Charles H. Lundquist College of Business.
    • Acceptable informal name: Lundquist College.

    Chicana, Chicano

    • Capitalize names of racial, linguistic, tribal, religious, and other groups of people.
    • Chicana is used to describe a female of Mexican birth or descent who lives in the United States.
    • Chicano is used to describe a male of Mexican birth or descent who lives in the United States.
    • Spanish rules cannot reasonably determine English usage. Latino/a and Latin@ should be avoided, and used only at the request of the subject of a piece of writing. The same rule applies for the use of Chicano/a.
    • The way ethnicity is described can be a sensitive matter. If possible, consult with the person in question to see what racial reference he/she prefers.
    • See inclusive language.

    circa

    class years

    • Names of graduates of the university should be followed by degree received and year of graduation (Use an apostrophe ('), not a single quote mark (‘), before the degree year): Alexis Udall, PhD '77.
    • References to those who attended the UO but did not graduate may include the class with which they entered: Christopher Credit-Shy, class of 2007.
    • Separate names and degree listings with commas: Thomas Morales, BA '63, MA '67, JD '74.
    • In running text, use a comma after the degree year: Alexis Udall, PhD '77, hosts a weekly gathering.
    • For multiple alumni in running text, use semicolons to separate each listing: Alexis Udall, PhD '77; Thomas Morales, BA '63, MA '67, JD '74; Susan Thelen, BS '83.
    • For couples, if it is the second name with the degree, list it after the last name: Sara and Bob Smith, BS '97.
    • For couples, if both have a degree, list the degree after each first name: Sara, BS '97, and Bob, BS '97, Smith.
    • For couples, if it is the first name with the degree, list it after the first name, Sara, BS '97, and Bob Smith.
    • For current students, use class of if space permits to indicate the anticipated graduation date without a degree: Chloe Smith, Class of 2020.
    • For past students who attended the University of Oregon but never earned a degree, use class of: Chloe Smith, Class of 2008.

    classes

    • Classes is closer in meaning to sections than to courses.
    • There may be several classes or sections of Japan, Past and Present, but there's only one course at the University of Oregon in Japan, Past and Present (HIST 192).

    cliché

    credit

    • In general, use credits rather than credit hours, hours, term credits, quarter credits, or term hours.
    • When you must distinguish between a quarter system and a semester system, use quarter credits and semester credits.
    • Write the number of credits in figures unless it begins a sentence; spell out the number of credits if it's the first element in a sentence: Four-credit courses are now the norm. This course is worth 3 credits.

    coed

    • Although obsolete as a reference to female students, coed is still commonly used as an adjective meaning "male and female": Coed residence halls have floors reserved alternately for men and women.

    collective nouns

    • When using the following nouns, be aware of whether you're referring to the word as a single unit (singular) or as individual items (plural).
    • singular plural
      The faculty recommends adding a course requirement. The faculty members disagree.
      The committee meets every Thursday. The committee members express differing views.
      Three inches is the recommended margin. Inches are shorter than feet.
      Sixteen dollars and four cents is the total. Sixteen dollar bills and four pennies are in the jar.

    College of Business

    colon

    The colon is often used to introduce a list or series. However, it's redundant to use a colon directly after such verbs as are and include: Three types of examinations are offered: oral, take‑home, and in-class but the course offerings include Spanish, marine biology, and medieval history.

    comma, serial comma

    • Use commas to separate all the items in a series of three or more ending in and or orreading, writing, and arithmetic.
    • Department of Planning, Public Policy and Management may appear to be an exception, but it isn't because there are only two items in the series: (1) planning, (2) public policy and (public) management.

    committees

    • Capitalize committee only when part of a formal name: the Safety Advisory Committee.
    • Treat committee as a collective noun taking a singular verb when referring to an academic body: The committee meets every Thursday.
    • Use committee members with a plural verb when referring to several individuals: The committee members express differing views.

    Common Reading

    company names

    • The full names of institutions, groups, and companies and the names of their departments, and often the shortened forms of such names, are capitalized: the Art Institute of Chicago; the Art Institute
    • A the preceding a name, even when part of the official title, is lowercased in running text. Such generic terms as company and university are lowercased when used alone:
      • the University of Chicago; the university; the University of Chicago and Ohio State University; the University of Wisconsin at Madison; the University of California at Berkeley
      • the Beach Boys; the Beatles; the Grateful Dead, the Dead; the Who (but Tha Eastsidaz); the General Foods Corporation; General Foods; the corporation
      • the Chicago Bulls; the Bulls
      • the Library of Congress; the library
      • the Manuscripts Division of the library
      • the Jordan Schnitzer Museum of Art; the museum
    • Parts of names given in full capitals on the letterhead or in the promotional materials of particular organizations may be given in upper- and lowercase when referred to in other contexts: the Rand Corporation rather than the RAND Corporation.
    • Company names that are spelled in lowercase letters in promotional materials may be capitalized: DrKoop.net rather than drkoop.net.
    • Names such as eBay and iPod, should they appear at the beginning of a sentence or heading (a construction that should be avoided if possible), need not take an initial capital in addition to the capitalized second letter.
    • Company or product names with additional, internal capitals (sometimes called "midcaps") should likewise be left unchanged: GlaxoSmithKline, HarperCollins, LexisNexis.

    competence vs. competency

    • Competence means skill or ability: This test measures your degree of competence in Spanish.
    • Competency generally refers to a specific skill in a specific area: The doctoral program is designed to achieve the competencies established by the American Psychological Association.

    compose, comprise

    • Compose means to create or put together, to make up: She composed a song for the piano. The Union is composed of 50 states.
    • Comprise means to encompass, to contain, to embrace, to include all: The jury comprises five men and seven women. Our nation comprises many ethnic groups.
    • Don’t use comprised of. Use the simpler consists of or contains.
    • The parts compose the whole; the whole comprises the parts.

    continual vs. continuous

    • Continual means repeated steadily or over and over: The Huskies are the Ducks’ continual rivals.
    • Continuous means uninterrupted, steady, or unbroken: The students walking over the footbridge to Autzen Stadium formed a continuous stream.

    co-op vs. coop

    • Co-op is short for cooperative housing.
    • Coop is where a chicken lives.

    couple

    • Nonstandard to use as an adjective.
    • Don’t forget the of: The deadline is just a couple of days away.

    course listings

    • See the current UO catalog for correct order and style for listing course information such as subject code and number, title, credit, and grading option.

    course work

    • Two words, do not hyphenate.

    credit

    • Use credits rather than credit hours, hours, term credits, quarter credits, or term hours.
    • When you must distinguish between a quarter system and a semester system, use quarter credits and semester credits.
    • Write the number of credits in figures unless it begins a sentence; spell out the number of credits if it's the first element in a sentence: This course is worth 3 credits. Four-credit courses are now the norm.
    • See academics sessions or term.

    cutting edge

    • Be more specific: The designer’s use of computer tools to develop her design puts her at the forefront of her field.

    cyberspace

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    D

    dashes

    • Dashes aren't hyphens.
    • The en dash (–) is half as long as an em dash. Use an en dash to indicate continuing or inclusive numbers in dates, times, or reference numbers: 50 BC–AD 45, 10:00 a.m.–5:00 p.m.
    • The en dash sometimes replaces a hyphen for clarification: post–Civil War, a hospital–nursing home connection
    • The em dash (—) is longer than a hyphen and indicates a break in the syntax of a sentence: Of the three grading options—graded only, pass/no pass only, either graded or pass/no pass—the last option is the default.
    • Use an em dash when attributing a quote: "You can never be overdressed or overeducated." —Oscar Wilde

    dates

    • Don’t use a comma in dates giving only the month and year: January 1995
    • Use two commas to set off the year in dates giving the month, day, and year: Does July 5, 1909, ring a bell?
    • Use an en dash instead of a hyphen between the first and second number to denote inclusive dates. When the century or the millennium changes, all the digits are repeated: The 1999–2000 catalog is missing from the archive. She served a term in 2000–2001.
    • When writing inclusive dates between, for instance, 2001 and 2009, don’t include the 0 after the en dash (zero is a place holder with no value): The professor was on leave during 2006–7.
    • Inclusive dates after 2009 revert to the two-digit standard: The provost returns for the 2015–16 academic year.
    • Please refer to The Chicago Manual of Style, Section 9.63, for other rules on writing inclusive years.
    • Except in formal invitations, use cardinal rather than ordinal numbers for the date: The ceremony is scheduled for October 16, 2001. You are cordially invited to attend the inauguration of the President of the United States on the Sixteenth of January, Two Thousand and Sixteen.
    • In general, don’t use on with a date or day. Occasionally you need to include on to avoid confusion: Commencement will be Saturday, June 12.
      He performed in 1776 on August 12, 2012.

    Dave Rowe Room

    days of the week

    • Write out months or days of the week unless space is too limited: The class meets Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays.
    • Days of the week can be abbreviated in course listings: M T W R F S U
    • See dates.

    deals with

    • Too vague. Use a more specific verb such as cover, examine, include, or explore: This course explores the history and development of freedom of speech.

    degrees

    denotation

    • Although some words may seem to be interchangeable, try to use the best term to express your intended meaning.
    • The verbs assure, ensure, and insure illustrate this kind of precise word choice.

    Department of Global Studies

    • Formerly the Department of International Studies

      departments, colleges

      • Capitalize only the formal names of departments, schools, and colleges: Charles H. Lundquist College of Business, School of Music and Dance, Robert D. Clark Honors College.
      • Lowercase the informal name (except for words that are proper nouns or adjectives): the history department, the political science department, the English department, the honors college.

        dialogue

        • Often misused as a verb, this noun refers to conversations between two or more parties.
        • Avoid the cliché meaningful dialogue: We need to discuss (not dialogue about) the new building plans.

        disabled

        • Refer to people with disabilities only when it is clearly pertinent: person who is visually impaired, person who is speech impaired, person who has hearing loss
        • Avoid using the handicapped, the disabled, or the differently abled.
        • Avoid descriptions that connote pity: afflicted with, suffers from, confined to a wheelchair.

        disc, disk

        • Use disc for phonographic records and related terms for optical or laser-based devices.
        • Use disk for medical references.

        ditto marks

        • The symbol formed from two apostrophes (〃) representing ‘ditto’.
        • Don't use them. Spell out.

        diversity

        • Overworked. Think before you use it. If it’s an important part of your message, consider using alternatives such as variety, differences, or heterogeneity: The variety and depth of our academic programs are unmatched in this state.

        dorm/dormitory

        • Use residence hall instead.

        dos and don'ts

        download

        The Duck Store

        • The proper name of the campus bookstore is The Duck Store.

        Ducks

        • When referring to the various student sports teams on campus, the correct terms to use are the Oregon Ducks or the Ducks.
        • When using the team name as an adjective, use Ducks, not Duck: Ducks fans (i.e., fans of the Ducks) crowded the stands in Autzen Stadium.
        • One UO attendee, alumnus, or alumna is considered a Duck, but one is not a "Duck fan." The only exception is in the official name of an organization, such as the Duck Athletic Fund.

        The Duck

        • The proper name of the mascot for the University of Oregon athletics teams is the Oregon Duck or the Duck.
        • The Duck should never be referred to as Puddles, although some media outlets still use this outdated name.

        Duck ID

        • The login credentials for most services at the University of Oregon (e.g., email, Blackboard, and the UO’s wireless network and VPN services).

        DuckWeb

        • The UO’s interactive information system for students, faculty, and staff.

        dr., doctor

        • DO NOT USE the courtesy title Doctor or Dr. UNLESS the person holds a medical degree (e.g., MD, DDS, DVM).
        • If it's important to show someone's academic degree, put the degree after the name (e.g., Brenda Sohappy, PhD).
        • For addresses on letters to academic doctorates, use the academic rank or, simply, Mr. or Ms. unless you know the addressee prefers Miss or Mrs.

        DVD

        • Abbreviation for digital video disc.
        • DVD acceptable in all references.

        Return to the top »


        E

        Earth, the earth

        • Generally lowercase: She is down to earth.
        • Capitalize when used as the proper name of the planet: The astronauts returned to Earth.

        e-book, e-reader

        effectively vs. in effect

        • Effectively is an adverb describing how the action of the verb takes place: The committee members worked together effectively.
        • Effectively isn’t synonymous with the parenthetical phrase in effect: By giving higher education $10 million more but asking the faculty to teach twice as many students, the legislature is, in effect (not effectively), cutting our budget.

        e.g. vs. i.e.

        • The abbreviation e.g. stands for exempli gratia, meaning for example.
        • The abbreviation i.e. stands for id est, meaning that is (‘in other words’).
        • Set both off with parentheses and put a comma after the unitalicized abbreviation: The University of Oregon Telephone Directory is provided free to UO employees (i.e., faculty members, officers of administration, classified staff members, and graduate employees). Many UO students major in one or more Romance languages (e.g., French, Italian, Spanish).

        ellipses

        • You can use ellipses (using three spaced periods, not a single-glyph three-dot ellipsis character) to replace words in the original sentences without distorting their meaning.
        • Use ellipses sparingly and only as specified below—not as a substitution for "etc." or as a design cliché.
        • In quoted speech or conversation, faltering speech may be indicated by an ellipsis.

        email

        • Do not hyphenate.

        emeritus, emeriti, emerita, emeritae

        • Emerita and emeritus are honorary titles, denoting retirement, that follow a faculty member's academic rank. The titles may be used only after official notification from the provost. Academic emeriti are listed in UO catalogs for the duration of their lives.
        • When given after names, titles aren't capitalized: Alice Anderson, professor emerita of Romance languages.
        • Singular: emerita refers to a woman; emeritus refers to a man
        • Plural: emeritae refers to women only; emeriti refers to men or to women and men

        employ

        • Reserve this verb for what employers do: The university employs thousands of faculty and staff members.

        Erb Memorial Union

        • This is the official name.
        • EMU is acceptable on second reference.

        etc.

        • The abbreviation etc. adds little value. If the unlisted items denoted by etc. are not important enough to include, don’t bother using the abbreviation.

        Ethernet

        • Note capitalization.

        euphemisms

        • Call things by their most common names.
        • Substitute clear, simple words for vague, misleading euphemisms: tax increase, not revenue enhancement; died, not passed away; fired, not terminated.

        exclamation point

        • Use it sparingly to express surprise, disbelief, or other strong emotion.
        • Overuse of the exclamation point imparts an adolescent quality to most writing.
        • For additional guidance, consult this handy chart from Hubspot.

        exhibits

        • Museum exhibition titles are capitalized in headline style.
        • In running text, they are italicized.
        • In lists where the exhibition titles stand alone, they are not italicized.

        experiential

        • Jargon. Specify the type of experience: These internships provide practical field experience.

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        F

        facilitate

        • Overstated and formal. Use ease, make easier, help, guide, simplify, or promote instead.

        the fact that

        • Wasted words. Omit them.

        faculty

        • Treat faculty as a collective noun taking a singular verb when referring to an academic body: The faculty recommends adding a course requirement.
        • Use faculty member (singular) or faculty members (plural) to refer to individuals: Consult your advisor or another faculty member in your department. The faculty members disagree.
        • See academic rank.

        FAQ, FAQs

        • Abbreviation for frequently asked questions.
        • Abbreviation acceptable in all references.
        • Do not use periods or apostrophe.

        feedback

        • Jargon. Use response, results, evaluation, report, data, or opinion: We value your opinions.

        feel

        • Reserve this verb for sensory or emotional feelings; use think or believe elsewhere: I feel queasy.

        fellow

        • Capitalize only when used in reference to a specific, named fellowship: He was recently named a Fulbright Fellow. He was named a new fellow of the American Academy of Science.

        fieldwork

        • Two words, do not hyphenate.

        first-come, first-served

        • This is the correct form of this cliché, but you’d often do better to rewrite the idea.

        first-year student

        • Refers to both first-time, full-time college students and transfer students. Use instead of freshman/freshmen, unless referring only to the freshman class.

        flier vs. flyer

        • Flier is a paper handout.
        • Flyer is a person who flies.

        foreign words and phrases

        • Italics are used for unfamiliar foreign words.
        • Words that were originally borrowed from another language but have been adopted into the English language (i.e., if they're in an English dictionary) should not be italicized: hors d'oeuvres, burrito, karaoke.

        freshman, freshmen

        • Use the term first-year student(s) instead, unless referring specifically to students in the freshman class.
        • See first-year student.

        full-time, full time

        • Hyphenate when used as an adjective: full-time job.
        • Do not hyphenate when used as an adverb: She goes to school full time.

        full-time equivalent

        • Enrollment and employment statistics are often stated in terms of full-time equivalents (FTE). Use only one digit after the decimal point.
          • 1.0 FTE is full time
          • 0.5 FTE is half time

        fundraiser, fundraising

        • One word, do not hyphenate.

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        G

        GE vs. GTF

        • Use graduate employee (GE) for teaching, research, and administrative graduate assistantships (not Graduate Teaching Fellow or GTF).

        gender, sex

        • Terms are not interchangeable.
        • Use gender to refer to sexual identity, especially in relation to society or culture: One might identify with a gender that is different from his or her sex.
        • Use sex to refer to biological categories: Is your cat male or female?
        • See the usage note under gender in The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language.
        • See Using Pronouns in the Division of Student Life.

        genus and species

        • Italics are used for genera and species: Fossil evidence for Homo erectus dates to 1.9 million years ago.

        geographic regions

        • Capitalize north, south, east, and west when they are part of specific geographic regions or official names of organizations: The Pacific Northwest, the Far West, the West Eugene Neighborhood Association.
        • Lowercase north, south, east, and west when they are used as general compass directions: the west entrance, the western United States, west Eugene.

        Go Ducks!

        gobbledygook

        • Avoid complicated, highfalutin, obscure, pompous, wordy language that is likely to confuse the reader.

        Google, Googled

        • Note capitalization.

          GPS

          • For Global Positioning System.
          • GPS acceptable in all references.

          grade point average, GPA

          • Use two digits after the decimal when stating a grade point average (GPA): 2.50 [not 2.5], 4.00 [not 4.0].

          grades

          • Courses are graded A, B, C, D, F, P (pass), or N (no pass).
          • A plus or minus may be added to the letter grades A, B, C, D. A mid-C is a grade of C without a plus or minus.

          grassroots

          • One word, do not hyphenate.

          gray

          • American spelling is gray.
          • British spelling is grey.

          groups of people

          • The names of racial, linguistic, tribal, religious, and other groups of people are capitalized. Don’t hyphenate them.
          • Spanish rules cannot reasonably determine English usage. Latino/a and Latin@ should be avoided, and used only at the request of the subject of a piece of writing. The same rule applies for the use of Chicano/a.
          • Greeks (capitalized) are both people from Greece and members of fraternities and sororities. The latter belong to Greek-letter organizations.
          • See inclusive language.

          grow

          • Use grow with a direct object that describes something living things often do.
          • It is jargonistic and discouraged to use grow with any nonliving thing: The candidate pledged to grow the economy.

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          H

          handicapped

          hands-on

          • Try practical, or draw a word picture that isn’t so hackneyed: You’ll use a Macintosh computer to learn basic business skills.

          hashtag

          • One word, do not hyphenate.

          head up

          • Jargon. Use direct or lead or merely head: Experienced river guides lead (not head up) the raft expeditions.

          health care

          Hispanic

          • Capitalize names of racial, linguistic, tribal, religious, and other groups of people.
          • The term is used to describe people in the United States who are descendants of countries of Latin America and Spain.
          • The way ethnicity is described can be a sensitive matter. If possible, consult with the person in question to see what racial reference he/she prefers.
          • See inclusive language.

          historic, historical

          • Any occurrence in the past is a historical event.
          • Use historic for places, things, and events of great significance that stand out in history.

          hopefully

          • An adverb that describes how the action of the verb takes place: He opened his grade report hopefully.
          • It isn’t synonymous with I hope, we hope, or it is hoped: I hope (not hopefully,) this will be published before school starts.

          honors

          • H following a course number indicates honors credit for undergraduate students.

          honors college

          HTML

          • Abbreviation for hypertext markup language.
          • HTML acceptable in all references.

          hyphens

          • Hyphens aren't dashes. See dashes.
          • Hyphens (-) are used for compound words and breaking words to the next line.
          • Compound adjectives should be hyphenated to eliminate ambiguity of meaning. Otherwise, leave open: first class mail but study-abroad programs
          • Do not hyphenate adverbs ending in -ly followed by an adjective: a highly complex issue
          • Use a hyphen to distinguish confusing pairs of words: recreation but re-creation, refund but re-fund
          • Use a hyphen after full or well when it's used in a compound modifier immediately before a noun, unless the word itself is modified: a full-page advertisement but a very well known professor
          • Don't use a hyphen when the modifier is in other positions in the sentence: She works full time.
          • The prefixes anti, co, post, pre, non, multi, and re generally don't require a hyphen unless followed by a proper noun: codirector, postdoctoral, premajor, nonmajor, multidisciplinary but post-Renaissance, non-English
          • Use a hyphen when using pro- to coin a word indicating support (e.g., pro-feminist).
          • After requires a hyphen when used to form a compound adjective but not when it's part of a compound noun: after-dinner speech but afterglow and afternoon
          • Hyphenate an age when used as an adjective, even if the noun the adjective modifies is only implied rather than stated: the five-year-old program, the five-year-old [child] attended kindergarten
          • Hyphenate adjectives used to define measures: the seven-foot-one center of the Los Angeles Lakers
          • Hyphenate the noun co-op when abbreviating cooperative, but don't hyphenate cooperate, coordinate, or coeducational.
          • Don't use a hyphen in a compound noun with vice: vice chancellor, vice president, vice provost
          • Hyphenate student-athlete.
          • See The Chicago Manual of Style's hyphenation guide.

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          I

          i.e. vs. e.g.

          ifs, ands, or buts

          IM

          • Abbreviation for instant message.
          • IM is acceptable on second reference.

          impact

          • Vague. Don’t use as a verb to mean affect. Use affect or influence, or be more descriptive: The tax cut will reduce (not impact) funding for the campus expansion.
          • As a verb, impact means to force tightly together, pack or wedge, or to hit with force.
          • Reserve impacted for wisdom teeth: impacted tooth.
          • As a noun, impact means collision or the impression of one thing on another.
          • Impactful is not a word. Replace that business jargon with an adjective like influential, powerful, effective, or memorable.

          importantly

          • Nonstandard except as an adverb: The CEO strutted importantly.
          • Use what is more important: What is more important (not More importantly), we need to have the money within the next two weeks.

          inclusive language

          • The language we use when speaking about diversity and inclusivity matters. Use this as a point of reference for the way we communicate about diversity and inclusivity. It is not meant to be rigid, exhaustive, or definitive. The goal is to create a flexible framework for using language that is empowering and respectful.
             
          • Look for authentic ways to include, portray, and integrate equity and inclusion issues and diverse populations into stories, written materials, websites, and all other communications.
             
          • Do not use offensive and derogatory terms, including such terms derived from the identity of a specific group (such as Indian giver, gypped, or Jewed), outdated terms (such as crippled), or overly clinical or medicalized terminology (such as homosexual). If you are uncertain of whether a term is derogatory, seek appropriate input.
             
          • Terminology that refers to attributes or identities such as race, gender, sexual orientation, socioeconomic status, disability, religion, age, or immigration or veteran status can adversely overemphasize an identity, feed stereotypes, or be discriminatory.
             
          • Conversely, there are times when noting a person’s identity or attribute can be an important affirmation and recognition and needs to be included.
             
          • Consider context. For example, would you include a particular characteristic or identity for any group? What is being accomplished by noting the characteristic or identity? Would you use the term white professor or heterosexual musician in this specific context?
             
          • If it is relevant and important to distinguish elements of a person’s identity, focus on the person, not the identity. For example:
             
            • A baby with Down syndrome not a Down’s baby.
            • A person living on a subsistence-level income instead of Jane Doe is low-income.
               
          • When possible, be as specific as you can to describe people. For example:
             
            •  Chinese rather than Asian
            •  Guatemalan instead of Hispanic
            •  Lesbian or transgender rather than LGBTQIA.
            • When in doubt, ask a person how they would like to be identified, which includes what pronouns they prefer.
            • Consult with the appropriate style guide for the type of writing you are doing to determine how best to identify the proper names of nationalities, peoples, and races.
               
          • Make room for a person’s complex identity and the complexity of different communities. For example:
             
            • A veteran or a person who uses a wheelchair may also be part of the lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender communities.
            • Muslims, Latinos, Jews, and others may be from many different races, ethnicities, or geographic origins.
               
          • Weigh the use of general or specific terms when referencing places of worship, events, or holidays, so as not to exclude any group or perspective, but be specific when the instance requires. For example:
             
            • When discussing religious buildings or institutions generally, use a general term such as place of worship or house of prayer; if a religion is specified, use the particular term (such as mosque, synagogue, church, chapel, and so forth).
            • When discussing the calendar or date ranges, reference the season of the year (e.g., winter) rather than a specific holiday; if a religious holiday is specified, use the particular term (such as Christmas, Rosh Hashanah, or Eid al-Fitr).

          innovative

          • Is it really true of your program? If so, rewrite to illustrate how it is innovative.

          in order to

          • Wordy. You can usually omit in order: We laugh to (not in order to) keep from crying.

          input

          • Jargon except in reference to computers. Use information or opinion: We value your opinions about this project.

          interdisciplinary

          • One word, do not hyphenate.

          interface

          • In the context of computers, this is fine. For people, use communicate or talk: The committee members need to communicate (not interface) with each other.

          internet

          • Do not capitalize.

          IntroDUCKtion

          • The University of Oregon's orientation program for new students.

          involve

          • Too vague. Use a more specific verb such as cover, include, or explore: The course examines how employment legislation pertains to affirmative-action and equal-employment opportunity.

          irregardless

          • Nonstandard. Use regardless: Regardless (not Irregardless) of the frigid temperature, the students wore shorts to play in the snow.

          italics

          • Italics are used for titles of books, genera and species, long plays, periodicals, movies, newspapers, operas and other long musical compositions, ships, and works of art: Woolf's To the Lighthouse; Bizet's Carmen; O'Keeffe's Cow's Skull, Red, White, and Blue; Shaw's Major Barbara; Wertmuller's Seven Beauties
          • Titles of television and radio series are italicized: National Public Radio's All Things Considered
          • Titles of individual episodes are placed in quotation marks: "Eye of the Beholder," Rod Serling's classic episode of The Twilight Zone, is regarded by many fans as a high point for the series.
          • Some musical compositions are known by their generic titles—symphony, quartet, nocturne—and often a number or key or both. Such names are capitalized but not italicized: Beethoven's Piano Sonata No. 14 in C-sharp minor, Op. 25, but Moonlight Sonata
          • The titles of university courses follow the standard rules for capitalization of the titles of works; they are neither italicized nor placed in quotation marks: Introduction to Biological Anthropology (ANTH 270) has no prerequisite.
          • Italics are also used for unfamiliar foreign words. Words that were originally borrowed from another language but have been permanently added to the English dictionary should not be italicized: samizdat, asperge but hors d'oeuvres
          • Use specific, concrete language rather than italics, capitals, or quotation marks for emphasis: This committee consists of two, not three, people not this committee is composed of two (2) people.

          -ize

          • Avoid adding -ize to a noun or adjective to create a verb: The plans will be completed (not finalized) by May 1.

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          J

          jargon

          • Avoid clichés, marketing lingo, institution-speak, or technical words, phrases, and idioms of a particular class, profession, or occupation. Their use tends to sound exclusive and can often alienate the reader: All the fish died not The biota exhibited a 100 percent mortality response.
          • When jargon is necessary, explain or define terms that will be difficult for most readers to understand.

          judgment


          K

          kickoff (n., adj.), kick off (v.)

          • One word when used as a noun or adjective.
          • Two words when used as a verb.

          Knight Campus


          L

            Latin Honors

            • Latin Honor Meaning Percentile Rankings
              cum laude with honors Top 10 percent
              magna cum laude with high honors Top 5 percent
              summa cum laude with highest honors Top 2 percent

            Latina, Latino

            • Capitalize names of racial, linguistic, tribal, religious, and other groups of people.
            • Latina is used to describe a female in the United States who are descendants of countries of Latin America and Spain.
            • Latino is used to describe a male in the United States who are descendants of countries of Latin America and Spain.
            • Spanish rules cannot reasonably determine English usage. Latino/a and Latin@ should be avoided, and used only at the request of the subject of a piece of writing. The same rule applies for the use of Chicano/a.
            • The way ethnicity is described can be a sensitive matter. If possible, consult with the person in question to see what racial reference he/she prefers.
            • See inclusive language.

            Law, School of

            leading edge

            lectures

            • The titles of lecture series and individual lecture titles are capitalized in headline style.
            • The titles of lecture series are not italicized
            • Individual lecture titles are enclosed in quotation marks.

            legislature

            • Capitalize when the formal name: Oregon Legislative Assembly.
            • Lowercase legislature when used generically: the state legislature.

            Leona E. Tyler Conference Room

            less vs. fewer vs. under

            • Fewer refers to quantity or units you can count: Fewer than a dozen students received the letters.
            • Less refers to a quantity you can’t count, but can be used for degree, quantity, or extent when countable items aren’t being considered individually: The campaign raised less than $500.
            • Under refer to spatial relationships: physically beneath.

            like

            • Means similar to: This question is like that one.
            • Use such as instead of like to introduce examples: The interior uses brown tones such as (not like) beige, taupe, and rust.

            lists

            • When the items in a list are sentence fragments, no ending punctuation is necessary.
            • When the items form complete sentences, a punctuation mark, usually a period or semicolon, may be used at their terminus.
            • The style chosen for the list should be consistent. Do not mix and match sentence fragments and complete sentences within a list.
            • Items can be enumerated in lists by using numbers followed by periods:
              1. Be brief
              2. Be clear
              3. Be prompt
              4. Be ready

            login (n.), log in (v.)

            • One word when used as a noun or adjective.
            • Two words when used as a verb.
            • Log in is preferred over log on.

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            M

            mailing address

            • In mailing addresses, use the two-letter postal abbreviation for states.
            • Except for the hyphenated nine-digit ZIP code, postal regulations require that no punctuation be used in the mailing address.
            • Delivery of US mail to university offices requires the four-digit extended ZIP code before University of Oregon.
            • Do not include building names and room numbers in mailing addresses.
            • On envelopes and mailing lists:
              • Write addresses in all capital letters.

              OFFICE OF ADMISSIONS
              1266 UNIVERSITY OF OREGON
              EUGENE OR 97403-1266

              NAME OF SCHOOL OR COLLEGE OR UNIT
              UNIVERSITY OF OREGON IN PORTLAND
              70 NW COUCH ST STE ___
              PORTLAND OR 97209-4038

            • Use the following abbreviations with a mailing address that includes a street number:
              • AVE for Avenue
              • BLVD for Boulevard
            • Abbreviate compass directions:
              • One-letter compass directions require a period (N., W.).
              • Two-letter abbreviations (NW, SE) do not.
            • In running text:
              • Write addresses as follows:
            • Office of Admissions, 1266 University of Oregon, Eugene OR 97403-1266.
            • Name of School or College or Unit, University of Oregon in Portland, 70 NW Couch Street, Suite ___, Portland OR 97209-4038
            • Spell out the standard abbreviations used in mailing addresses: Street, Avenue, Boulevard, Place, Court, Lane.: The Museum of Natural and Cultural History is located at 1680 East 15th Avenue, Eugene, Oregon.
            • If an address number isn’t used, don’t abbreviate: Avenue, Boulevard 
            • General references to streets, roads, avenues, and places aren’t capitalized.
            • In Eugene, most numbered roadways are avenues. In Springfield, numbered roadways are usually either streets or places.
            • See ZIP code.

            majors/minors

            • Lowercase except for proper nouns or adjectives: He has a major in Japanese and a minor in dance.

            MarAbel B. Frohnmayer Music Building

            • Include the word building in the title of the building.

            master’s, MA, MS, MBA, MFA

            meaningful

            • Vague and overused. Use serious, useful, important, significant, or easy to understand instead, or describe what you mean by meaningful.

            measurements

            • Spell out terms of measurement in the text:
              • inches
              • miles
              • millimeters
              • minutes
              • kilometers
              • percent
            • Hyphenate adjectives used to define measures: the seven-foot-one center of the Los Angeles Lakers

            Mexican American

            • Capitalize names of racial, linguistic, tribal, religious, and other groups of people.
            • Do not hyphenate.
            • The term is used to describe an American of full or partial Mexican descent.
            • The way ethnicity is described can be a sensitive matter. If possible, consult with the person in question to see what racial reference he/she prefers.
            • See inclusive language.

            mm, mph

            • Do not use periods.
            • Abbreviate in all uses.
            • Do not put a space before mm: 16mm and 35mm film projectors

            momentarily

            • Means for the duration of a moment or briefly: Corey surfaced momentarily to take a breath.
            • When you mean after a brief period of time has elapsed, use soon or in a few minutes or any time now: The director will be able to see you soon.

            money

            • Use figures for fractional amounts of more than one dollar: $7.95, $1.5 million 
            • Use zeros after the decimal point for whole-dollar amounts only when they appear in the same context with fractional amounts: The ticket prices are $5.00 for general admission, $3.50 for students and senior citizens.
            • In tables, use one format—either with or without decimals—consistently. Use a label (e.g., Dollars) to avoid repeating the same symbol (e.g., $) over and over.

            months of the year

            • Write out months unless space is too limited.
            • See dates.

            movie titles

            • Italics are used for titles of movies: Wertmuller's Seven Beauties.
            • See titles.

            more than vs. over

            • More than refers to a quantity or to units you can count: It will take more than nickels and dimes to reach our goal.
            • Over refers to spatial relationships: physically above: The bear went over the mountain.
            • Over can also be used for degree, quantity, or extent when countable items aren’t being considered individually: The telethon raised over half the campaign goal.
            • In some cases of countable units, over may be less awkward. In those cases, let your ear be your guide: He is over (instead of more than) 40.

            multilisted courses

            • M following a course number indicates a single course that is listed under more than one subject code.

            musical composition titles

            • Italics are used for titles of operas, oratorios, tone poems, and other long musical compositions: Bizet's Carmen.
            • Use double quotation marks before and after titles of songs and other shorter musical compositions: “All You Need Is Love” is a song by the Beatles.
            • Capitalize but do not italicize musical compositions known by their generic titles—symphony, quartet, nocturne—and a number or key or both: Bach’s Mass in B Minor.
            • The abbreviations no. (number; plural os.) and op. (opus; plural opp. or opera) are lowercased and not italicized: Beethoven's Piano Sonata no. 14 in C-sharp minor, op. 25.
            • See titles.

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            N

            names

            names with initials

            • No space between initials: G.P. “Bud” Peterson presented the strategic plan to the Board of Regents.
            • If an entire name is abbreviated, spaces and periods are omitted: Franklin Delano Roosevelt, often referred to as FDR, is the only U.S. president to have served more than two terms.

            names with Jr., Sr.

            • Omit commas before and after Jr., Sr., and the designations I, II, III and IV: Fred Jones Jr. was introduced by Cedric Waltham III.

            newspaper titles

            • Italics are used for titles of newspapers: the Register-Guard (note the name is hyphenated), the New York Times.
            • When newspapers and periodicals are mentioned in text, an initial the, even if part of the official title, is lowercased (unless it begins a sentence) and not italicized: the Register-Guard (note the name is hyphenated), the New York Times.
            • See titles.

            North African

            • Capitalize names of racial, linguistic, tribal, religious, and other groups of people.
            • Do not hyphenate.
            • The term is used to describe a person from the group of Mediterranean countries situated in the northern-most region of the African continent.
            • The way ethnicity is described can be a sensitive matter. If possible, consult with the person in question to see what racial reference he/she prefers.
            • See inclusive language.

            nontraditional

            • One word, do not hyphenate.

            numbers

            • Spell out one through nine except in cases such as scientific matter dealing with physical quantity, scores for sporting events, or when speaking of academic credit or course numbers: one course, two sessions, 1.5 millimeters, 5 percent, HIST 101
            • Write numbers 10 and greater as numerals unless beginning a sentence.
            • Write ordinals 10 and greater as numerals unless beginning a sentence: 12th, 104th.
            • With the exception of years and test scores, four-digit and greater numbers should always have a comma after the thousand position: 1,000; 15,000.
            • The number requires a singular verb; a number requires a plural verb.
            • See dates.
            • See telephone numbers, fax numbers.

            numbered list

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            O

            off campus vs. off-campus, on campus vs. on-campus

            • Hyphenate when used as a modifier: on-campus dining, resources are available off campus.

            one-on-one

            • A nonsexist version of man-to-man, suitable for describing a type of sports-team defense.
            • In other contexts, it’s an impersonal cliché. Use more specific language: Individual tutors train students in equipment use and safety.

            ongoing

            • Jargon. Use continuing or omit: The institute supports new and continuing (not ongoing) research.

            online

            • One word, do not hyphenate.

            ordered list

            • Items can be in lists by using numbers followed by periods.
              1. Be brief.
              2. Be clear.
              3. Be prompt.
              4. Be ready.
            • If it is a complete sentence, use punctuation at the end.
            • If it is not a complete sentence, do not use punctuation at the end.
            • Begin with capitalization, regardless of whether it is a complete sentence.
            • Use parentheses for numbered lists within the text: (1) carbohydrates, (2) fat, (3) protein, (4) vitamins

            output

            • Jargon except in reference to computers. Use results elsewhere: What results (not output) do you expect?

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            P

            Pac-12

            • Common abbreviation for the Pacific-12 Conference.
            • Do not put Pac in all caps.

            Pacific Islander

            • Capitalize names of racial, linguistic, tribal, religious, and other groups of people.
            • Do not hyphenate.
            • The term is used to describe a person having origins in any of the original peoples of Hawaii, Guam, Samoa, or other Pacific Islands.
            • The way ethnicity is described can be a sensitive matter. If possible, consult with the person in question to see what racial reference he/she prefers.
            • See inclusive language.

            Pacific Northwest

            • Capitalize when talking about the specific geographic region.

            parallelism

            • Parallel structures require parallel forms.
            • A numbered list should be given either in complete sentences or in sentence fragments, not a mixture of both.

            parentheses

            • Use parentheses for numbered lists within the text: (1) carbohydrates, (2) fat, (3) protein, (4) vitamins
            • See ordered lists.
            • Parentheses sometimes enclose brief explanatory abbreviations: McKenzie Hall (formerly the Law Center) houses offices for the College of Arts and Sciences.

            part-time, part time

            • Hyphenate when used as an adjective: part-time job.
            • Do not hyphenate when used as an adverb: She goes to school part time.

            PathwayOregon

            • One word, no space, do not hyphenate.
            • PathwayOregon the University of Oregon's promise of full tuition and fees and comprehensive support for academically qualified, federal Pell Grant–eligible Oregonians.
            • More information on PathwayOregon's success.

            Paul Olum Atrium

            percent, percentage

            • One word, do not hyphenate.
            • Always use figures with it.
            • Use decimals, not fractions: 8.25 percent not 8-1/4 percent
            • The % symbol may be used in scientific data or tables.
            • Percent is singular if used alone or if a singular word is the object of of: Exactly 80 percent is required.
            • Percent is plural if a plural word is the object of of: More than 40 percent of the courses are at the graduate level.
            • Percentage is always singular: A percentage of the profits is all I want.

            periodical titles

            • Italics are used for titles of periodicals: the Journal of the American Medical Association.
            • See titles.

            per se

            • Overly formal. Use the less pretentious in itself, by itself, or of itself.

            persons

            • Too often an awkward replacement for people: Keep telling yourself as well as other people (not persons) that we have a problem we can solve together.

            Phil and Penny Knight Campus for Accelerating Scientific Impact

            • Academic and Professional Citations

              • Phil and Penny Knight Campus for Accelerating Scientific Impact, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR
            • Standard Language

              • Use the Phil and Penny Knight Campus for Accelerating Scientific Impact on first reference.
              • Knight Campus is acceptable on second reference.
            • General References

              • Use lower case for general references to the campus, the initiative, the project.
            • What It is Not

              • A complex
              • An institute
              • A center
              • A school or college
              • An acronym, such as KCASI
            • Donor References

              • Penny and Phil Knight, BBA ’59
              • Follow the naming protocol already in place for donors when referenced in an article or story:
                • Penny and Phil Knight (when referring to a couple, use the woman’s name first)
                • the Knights
                • Mr. and Mrs. Knight
              • First names, Phil and Penny, are acceptable when used in direct quotes.
            • Funding

              • The new campus is made possible by an extraordinary $500 million lead gift from Penny and Phil Knight and augmented with $70 million in state bonds.
            • Descriptions

              • The Phil and Penny Knight Campus for Accelerating Scientific Impact is . . .
                • 10-Word Description: . . . designed to accelerate the cycle of generating impact from discoveries.

                • 25-Word Description: . . . designed to fast-track scientific discoveries into innovations, products, or cures to improve the quality of life for people in Oregon and throughout the world.

                • 50-Word Description: . . . a new campus designed to accelerate the cycle of moving discoveries to impacts for the greater good. Rooted in the UO’s 60-year history of interdisciplinary collaboration, it will train new generations of scientists, forge tighter ties with industry and entrepreneurs, and create new opportunities for graduate and undergraduate students.

            places

            • Capitalize north, south, east, and west when they are part of specific geographic regions or official names of organizations. Don’t capitalize general compass directions.

            play titles

            • Italics are used for titles of plays: Shaw's Major Barbara.
            • Words denoting parts of long poems or acts and scenes of plays are usually lowercased, neither italicized nor enclosed in quotation marks; use Arabic numbers, regardless of the original: act 3, scene 1, of Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet
            • See titles.

            plural words

            • Don't use a slash followed by an s (/s) or an s in parentheses (s) to cover two options. It's better to write out the choice, choose one option yourself, or rewrite the sentence to avoid the problem.
            • Here are some words whose singular or plural forms can be troublesome:
            • Singular Plural Reference
              agenda agendas  
              alumnus alumni men or men and women
              See alumna, alumnae, alumni, alumnus
              alumna alumnae women
              See alumna, alumnae, alumni, alumnus
              basis bases  
              colloquium colloquia or colloquiums  
              criterion criteria  
              curriculum curricula  
              datum data  
              editor in chief editors in chief  
              ellipsis ellipses  
              emeritus emeriti men or men and women
              See emeritus, emeriti, emerita, emeritae
              emerita emeritae women
              See emeritus, emeriti, emerita, emeritae
              emeritus professor emeritus professors men or men and women
              See emeritus, emeriti, emerita, emeritae
              faculty faculties  
              faculty member faculty members  
              freshman freshmen men or men and women
              See freshman, freshmen
              freshman class freshman classes classes for freshmen (not freshmen classes)
              See freshman, freshmen
              person people (not persons) See persons.
              phenomenon phenomena  
              practicum practicums  
              professor emeritus professors emeriti  
              staff staffs  
              staff member staff members  
              woman athlete women athletes  

            plus

            • Use only in adding units: Earning 4 credits in biology plus 8 credits in physics fulfills the science requirement.
            • Otherwise, use inaddition, also, or and: Transfer students may need to take an entrance examination and (not plus) additional course work.

            poem titles

            • Quotation marks are used for titles of poems: Robert Frost’s poem “The Housekeeper.”
            • See titles.

            Portland

            presently

            • Means soon: The dean will be with you presently.
            • Use now, currently, or at present when you mean at this time: Many students live off campus now.

            prior vs. before

            • Prior is correct when used as an adjective meaning earlier in time or place: Prior approval is required.
            • Before is correct when used as a preposition: Take algebra before you take calculus.

            prioritize

            • Overused. Use order, set priorities, or rank.

            professor

            • Do not abbreviate.
            • Lowercase before a name, but capitalize Professor Emeritus as a conferred title before a name: Professor Emeritus John Husky.
            • Do not continue in second reference unless part of a quotation.

            programs

            • Capitalize the full name of official programs or projects.
            • Always lowercase program when the word stands alone or when using only part of the formal name.
            • In some UO programs, confusion stems from use of the same term for two different things: First-Year Interest Groups, the program; a first-year interest group, a group of three courses within that program. The title of an official program is uppercased and takes a singular verb. The general reference term is lowercased.
            • Capitalize the program if the word program is implied, or when the term takes a singular verb: Freshman Seminars and First-Year Interest Groups; a general reference to individual seminars, freshman interest groups, or colloquiums would be lowercased.

            pronouns

            • Avoid the use of awkward or unpronounceable pronoun combinations: his or her not his/her, him or her not him/her, he or she not s/he
            • Another way of avoiding sexist pronouns is to use plural forms that refer to both men and women: Students may pick up their pay checks Monday morning.
            • Reflexive pronouns (myself, ourselves, yourself, yourselves, himself, herself, itself, themselves) refer to people or things already mentioned or implied in the same sentence.

            Puddles

            • The Duck should never be referred to as Puddles, although some media outlets still use this outdated name.
            • See The Duck.

            punctuation

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            Q

            quality

            • A meaningless cliché when used alone to modify a noun: as in quality education.
            • Quality doesn’t imply something positive or good quality; it needs a modifier to explain the kind of quality. Is it "top quality"? "low quality"? "mediocre quality"?
            • Quality time is a jargon term that rose to generic usage from the child-care field in reference to more deeply involved parenting.

            quarters, terms, academic sessions

            quotation marks

            • Use double quotation marks before and after direct quotations as well as titles of interviews, personal correspondence, short poems and plays, short musical compositions, speeches, individual television or radio programs, and other unpublished writing.
            • Use single quotation marks for quotations within quotations: I said, "You must know who shouted, ‘Eureka! I've found it!'"
            • Put a period or comma inside the ending quotation mark.
            • Put an exclamation point, question mark, or semicolon inside the ending quotation mark only if it's part of the quotation: "Who's on First?" is one of Abbott and Costello's classic comedy routines.
            • Put an exclamation point, question mark, or semicolon outside the ending quotation mark if it isn't part of the quotation: Are you going to read "China in Transition"?
            • Don't use quotation marks after the word so-called. It's redundant.
            • Use quotation marks around unusual, technical, ironic, or slang words or phrases not accompanied by a word calling attention to them. Use this device sparingly, and on first use only: Thousands of dollars were raised in support of the Interior Architecture Program's "daylighting" research.

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            R

            radio series titles

            • Italics are used for titles of radio series: National Public Radio's All Things Considered.
            • Quotation marks are used for titles of individual episodes: Listen to “The Case Against Adnan Syed,” the sixth episode of National Public Radio’s Serial series.
            • See titles.

            rankings

            • Use No. as the abbreviation for number to indicate position or rank: The UO College of Education Special Education Program ranked No. 6 in U.S. News and World Report’s 2018 annual rankings of graduate schools in education.

            reason why

            • Redundant. Use reason alone or omit entirely: The reason (not reason why) you can’t register for this class is that it’s already full.

            residence hall

            • Use instead of dorm/dormitory.

            résumé (noun) vs. resume (verb)

            • Résumé (noun) is a document used by a person to present their backgrounds and skills. Use the accents.
            • Resume (verb) is to begin again or go on with.
            • See accent marks.

            Robert D. Clark Honors College

            • Acceptable formal names: Robert Donald Clark Honors College, Robert D. Clark Honors College, Clark Honors College

            rooms and spaces

            • The word room is often unnecessary in addresses: 101 Chapman Hall
            • If you use it after a room name, it should be capitalized: Walnut Room, Erb Memorial Union

            RSVP

            • Use this abbreviation with a telephone number or address and a deadline to request a response.
            • Please is redundant, because the abbreviation stands for the French répondez s’il vous plait, “please respond.”
            • If in doubt about whether your readers know the meaning of RSVP, use English: Please respond or Please reply.

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            S

            School of Law

            • University of Oregon School of Law
            • Oregon Law is acceptable on second reference.

            School of Planning, Public Policy and Management

            • Note the use of one comma. There are only two items in the series: (1) planning, (2) public policy and (public) management.

            school spirit

            • When referring to the various student sports teams on campus, the correct terms to use are the Oregon Ducks or the Ducks. When using the team name as an adjective, use Ducks, not Duck.
            • One UO attendee, alumnus, or alumna is considered a Duck, but one is not a "Duck fan" any more than a follower of the Chicago Bears is a Bear fan. The only exception is in the official name of an organization, such as the Duck Athletic Fund.

            secondly or thirdly

            • Nonstandard, just as firstly or eleventhly would be. Use second or third: First, be accurate. Second, be brief. Third, be prompt.

            semester

            • Use semester as the general reference to any academic semester at the School of Law.

            SEO

            • Abbreviation for search engine optimization.
            • SEO is acceptable on second reference.

            sequence

            • A sequence is two or more courses that must be taken in sequential, usually numerical, order.
            • Don't use sequence to mean academic program or core courses.

            serial comma

            serve vs. service

            • Both words can be used as verbs.
            • Serve applies better to people: We try to serve our clients promptly.
            • Service applies to machines: The technician will service the photocopier tomorrow.

            series

            • A series is two or more closely related courses that may be taken in any order. 

            sex, gender

            • Terms are not interchangeable.
            • Use sex to refer to biological categories: Is your cat male or female?
            • Use gender to refer to sexual identity, especially in relation to society or culture: One might identify with a gender that is different from their sex.
            • See also the usage note under gender in The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language.
            • See Using Pronouns in the Division of Student Life.

            ships

            • Italics are used for ships: The RMS Titanic sank on April 15, 1912.

            since

            • Refers to intervening time and shouldn’t be used in place of because: It’s been several years since I read Madame Bovary.

            slash

            • The slash (officially known as the solidus) is overused and frequently ambiguous. Too often, the relationship between the items joined by a slash is unclear.
            • The slash is used to separate alternatives, such as and/or. It is appropriate, then, to use the slash in pass/no pass or in P/N. In most other cases, try to use words instead of the slash.
            • Use a hyphen instead of a slash to link two words: middle-secondary education not middle/secondary
            • If space limitations make it necessary to use a slash, explain clearly what it means: Courses numbered 4XX/5XX are for seniors and graduate students, respectively. Although undergraduates and graduates share the same classroom, graduate students are required to do more work, are evaluated according to a tougher grading standard, or both.
            • Use the slash with a space on either side to separate two lines of poetry quoted in the text: In "Song of the Open Road," Ogden Nash wrote, "I think that I shall never see / A billboard lovely as a tree."

            smartphone

            spaces

            • Include only one space between end punctuation and the beginning of a new sentence.
            • Do not include spaces before and after em or en dashes.

            speech titles

            • Quotation marks are used for titles of speeches: Martin Luther King Jr.’s “I Have a Dream” speech.
            • Informal titles of speeches do not use quotation marks: the annual State of the Union address, the Gettysburg Address, Franklin Roosevelt’s second inaugural address.
            • See titles.

            startup

            • One word, do not hyphenate.

            state of the art

            • A cliché like innovative. Use modern, up-to-date, or newest instead, or—better—prove it by using an illustrative word picture.

            state names

            • Spell out state names unless space is restricted or when giving a mailing address: The university is located in Eugene, Oregon.
            • Use the two-letter United States Postal Service abbreviations (e.g., OR) in mailing addresses; don’t insert a comma between the city and the state: Direct related inquiries to the Office of Affirmative Action and Equal Opportunity, 474 Oregon Hall; send mail to 5221 University of Oregon, Eugene OR 97403-5221.
            • If space is limited in text other than a mailing address, use longer standard abbreviations with periods (e.g., Ore. or Oreg. for Oregon).
            • A few states (e.g., Hawaii and Idaho) are never abbreviated in this way.
            • See Section 10.28 of The Chicago Manual of Style for both types of abbreviations (e.g., Calif. and CA for California).

            staff

            • Staff refers to a collective body of people, is a singular noun and requires a singular verb unless there's more than one staff: Welcome to our staff.
              Some staffs have 30 employees, some only one.
            • Use staff member (singular) or staff members (plural) to refer to individuals: Do you need one staff member or two this weekend? Our staff members are always ready to help you.

            statewide

            student-athlete

            • Two words, hyphenate.

            subject codes

            • Subject codes are fixed abbreviations for study areas
            • They appear in all-capital letters and without internal spaces.
              • BI (not Biol) biology
              • J (not JOUR) journalism
              • MATH (not Math) mathematics
            • The UO Catalog has a list of subject codes.
            • Do not use the subject code as an abbreviation for the related department or program.

            synergy or synergistic

            • Avoid using these terms.
            • Appropriated from the scientific lexicon by the corporate world.
            • In contexts outside of science, the term is jargon for cooperation among groups, especially among the acquired subsidiaries or merged parts of a corporation, that creates an enhanced combined effect.

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            T

            telephone numbers, fax numbers

            • Use hyphens only, not parentheses: 541-346-5397.
            • Every phone number on the University of Oregon telephone system begins with area code 541- followed by the three-digit prefix 346-, then four additional digits: 541-346-5396.
            • On‑campus phone calls require five digits (6 + last four digits): 6-5396.

            television series titles

            • Italics are used for titles of television series: The Twilight Zone.
            • Quotation marks are used for titles of individual episodes: "Eye of the Beholder," Rod Serling's classic episode of The Twilight Zone, is regarded by many fans as a high point for the series.
            • See titles.

            term

            that vs. which

            • Are sometimes used interchangeably, but best to differentiate between the two.
            • Use which for unrestricted or independent clauses (those preceded by a comma): Complete regulations are included in the UO Class Schedule, which is offered online at the registrar’s website.
            • Use that for restricted or dependent clauses: Remove only the apples that are bruised from the display.

            theater

            • Use theater except for the names of theaters that use the variant spelling: Robinson Theatre, University Theatre, and James F. Miller Theatre Complex.

            ’til or ’till

            • Nonstandard. Use until or to or till: Wait until dark. Associate Professor Steinmetz will conduct a seminar from 3:30 to 4:30 p.m. We brainstormed till dawn.

            time of day

            • Use the ": 00": 1:00, 2:00.
            • Use lowercase letters and periods for a.m. and p.m.
            • Include a space between the numeral and a.m. or p.m.: 10:00 a.m.
            • Use noon instead of 12:00 p.m.
            • Use midnight instead of 12:00 a.m.
            • Don’t mix and match ways of expressing inclusive times:
              • The workshop lasted from 8:00 a.m. to 10:45 p.m.
              • Visiting hours are 8:00–10:00 a.m.
              • The museum is open between noon and 5:00 p.m.
            • The 24-hour clock is used in the online University of Oregon Schedule of Classes: 08:00 for 8:00 a.m.; 16:30 for 4:30 p.m.

            titles

            • Follow headline style when capitalizing the first letters of words in titles.
            • The first and last words of the title are always capitalized, regardless of their function.
            • Capitalize the first letter of all other words except for those functioning as articles (e.g., the, a, an), prepositions (e.g., about, against, at, by, for, from, in, of, on, over, through, to, under, with—except when they are stressed or used as adverbs or adjectives), and some conjunctions (and, but, for, or, nor): A River Runs Through It (the preposition through is stressed), Rebel without a Cause, Four Theories concerning the Gospel according to Matthew.
            • When newspapers and periodicals are mentioned in text, an initial the, even if part of the official title, is lowercased (unless it begins a sentence) and not italicized: the Register-Guard (note the name is hyphenated), the New York Times.
            • Capitalize formal names of academic courses per standard capitalization rules for titles (do not italicize or place in quotation marks): Introduction to Biological Anthropology (ANTH 270) has no prerequisite.
            • See book titles, movie titles, musical composition titles, periodicial titles, play titles, poem titles, radio series titles, speech titles, television series titles, video game titles.

            toward

            • Do not use towards (British spelling).

            trademarks

            • The symbols ® and ™, often used in ads and product packaging, should be noted on the first reference but are not necessary on subsequent references.

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            U

            underrepresented

            underway

            unique

            • A cliché meaning one of a kind.
            • If what you are describing is truly unique, omit the cliché and illustrate specifically what makes it that way.
            • Remember that uniqueness isn’t necessarily good. If your program’s uniqueness is its strongest selling point, you need to show how it’s unique and convince the reader that this is a positive attribute.

            United States, USA, US

            • The abbreviation is US, not U.S. Use USA only in titles or within quoted material.

            University of Oregon

            University of Oregon Libraries

            • Also acceptable is UO Libraries
            • Knight Library is the name of a building

            university-wide

            • Hyphenate when used as an adjective: the university-wide event.

            unordered (bulleted) list

            • If it is a complete sentence, use punctuation at the end.
            • If it is not a complete sentence, do not use punctuation at the end.
            • Choose one approach and follow it consistently:
              • Usually begin lowercase, except when they use proper nouns.
              • If you want more prominence for the sentence, you can use capitalization.

            UO Alumni Association

            • Use University of Oregon Alumni Association or UO Alumni Association on first reference.
            • UOAA or the association are acceptable on second reference.

            UO Portland

            • The University of Oregon has had a presence in Portland, Oregon’s largest city, since the 1880s.
            • To describe the facility that houses the University of Oregon in Portland, use White Stag Block.
            • See campus references and mailing address.

            upcoming

            • Up- is unnecessary baggage. Use coming or another synonym: Ask for a schedule of coming (not upcoming) events.

            URL, URLs

            • Abbreviation for uniform resource locator.
            • Abbreviation acceptable in all references.
            • Always omit http:// and www. unless required for functionality. Use end punctuation if the URL is part of a sentence.
            • Avoid breaking a URL between lines. If unavoidable, do not hyphenate; do break after a period, underscore, or slash.
            • Avoid typing out the whole URL in links online: Find more information on the Student Life website. Link the words Student Life rather than using the URL studentlife.uoregon.edu.
            • See dos and don'ts when creating your content.

            username

            • One word, do not hyphenate.

            utilize

            • Jargon. Use use: Students use the latest microcomputer software.

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            V

            viable alternative

            • A wordy cliché. Use alternative alone: Try to suggest some alternative solutions (not viable alternatives).

            video game titles

            • Though video games are technically software applications, or apps, they are treated like movies: Nintendo’s Mario Bros., Call of Duty: Modern Warfare 3.
            • See titles.

            voicemail

            • One word, do not hyphenate.

            Volcanology Building

            • Include the word building in the title of the building.

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            W

            web

            • Do not capitalize.

            website

            • One word, do not hyphenate.
            • Do not capitalize.
            • Titles of websites follow headline style when capitalizing the first letters of words in titles, are not italicized and are not in quotation marks: the Internet Movie Database.
            • Titles of sections, pages, or special features on a website should be placed in quotation marks: Wikipedia’s “Let It Be” entry.

            webcam, webinar, webisode, webmaster, web page

            • Do not capitalize most web words.

            weights

            • Always use figures: The baby weighed 8 pounds, 5 ounces.

            Western Hemisphere

            • Capitalize when talking about the specific geographic region.

            which vs. that

            • Are sometimes used interchangeably, but best to differentiate between the two.
            • Use which for unrestricted or independent clauses (those preceded by a comma): Complete regulations are included in the UO Class Schedule, which is offered online at the registrar’s website.
            • Use that for restricted or dependent clauses: Remove only the apples that are bruised from the display.

            while

            • Refers to simultaneous actions: I’ll administer CPR while you dial 911.
            • It may be more precise to use although or but: I was a late bloomer, but you’ve always been a leader.

            White Stag Block

            who vs. whom

            • Who does something, whom has something done to it.
            • Use whom when someone is the object of a verb or preposition: Whom do you wish to see?
            • A preposition (such as to, at, by, for, from, in, toward, upon, and with) often comes before whom: The man to whom the car was rented did not fill the gas tank.
            • Who is the word in all other uses, especially when someone takes an action as the subject of a sentence, clause, or phrase: The man who rented the car did not fill the gas tank. Who is still here?
            • To test for correctness, who equals he, she, or they while whom equals him, her, or them. Replace who or whom in the sentence with one of those pronouns. If it sounds wrong, it probably is.

            -wide, -wise

            • Avoid using -wise or -wide as a suffix: She gives fascinating lectures not Lecture wise, she's a fascinating teacher.

            wiki

            • Do not capitalize.

            Wi-Fi

            wish vs. desire

            • Use want or prefer for ordinary requests: If you want (not wish) to donate to the annual fund, please make out a check to the UO Foundation.
            • Save wish for wishes (things that might not happen) and desire for desires (needs for emotional fulfillment).

            works of art

            • Italics are used for titles of paintings, drawings, photographs, statues, and other works of art: O'Keeffe's Cow's Skull, Red, White, and Blue.
            • The names of works of antiquity (whose creators are often unknown) are not italicized: the Venus de Milo.
            • See titles.

            work-study

            World War I or First World War; World War II or Second World War

            • Capitalize World War I and First World War.
            • Capitalize World War II and Second World War.

            worldwide

            • One word, do not hyphenate

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            Y

            years

            • Don’t use a comma in dates giving only the month and year: January 1995
            • Use two commas to set off the year in dates giving the month, day, and year—one after the day and one after the year: Does July 5, 1909, ring a bell?
            • Use an en dash (–) instead of a hyphen (-) between the first and second number to denote inclusive dates: 2016–17
            • When the century or the millennium changes, all the digits are repeated: The 1999–2000 catalog is missing from the archive. She served a term in 2000–2001.
            • When writing inclusive dates between, for instance, 2001 and 2009, don’t include the 0 after the en dash: The professor was on leave during 2006–7.
            • Inclusive dates after 2009 revert to the two-digit standard: The provost returns for the 2015–16 academic year.
            • Please refer to The Chicago Manual of Style, Section 9.63, for other rules on writing inclusive years.

            yearlong

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            Z

            ZIP code

            • ZIP is an acronym for Zoning Improvement Plan.
            • Use all caps in “ZIP” and lowercase “c” in “code.”

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