Editorial Style Guide

The Chicago Manual of Style is the standard reference book on style used by the University of Oregon.

Our dictionary is Merriam-Webster.

Follow The Associated Press Stylebook when writing for AroundtheO.

To submit content for editing, visit communications.uoregon.edu, click "Propose a Project," and select "Editing or Proofreading" in the request field.

If you have questions or feedback, email editor Sharleen Nelson, University Communications.


Editorial Style Guide Index

A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z


A

abbreviations and acronyms

  • Spell out the first reference to any university group or program. In subsequent references, phrases such as the committee or the center are usually preferable to abbreviations or acronyms.
  • There are exceptions for well-known acronyms such as the EMU. Consider the audience. See the Chicago Manual of Style's section on when to use abbreviations.

academic degrees

  • Don't capitalize general references to degrees: I have bachelor of arts and master of fine arts degrees. The University of Oregon offers bachelor's, master's, and doctoral degrees.
  • Do not use periods in degree abbreviations: BA, BMus, BArch, MS, DEd, and PhD.
  • Use an apostrophe in bachelor’s degree, a master’s, etc.
  • The word degree should not follow an abbreviation: She has a BA in English literature.
  • The university offers the following degrees:
  • Formal General Abbreviated
    bachelor of arts bachelor's degree, bachelor's BA
    bachelor of architecture bachelor's degree, bachelor's BArch
    bachelor of education bachelor's degree, bachelor's BEd
    bachelor of fine arts bachelor's degree, bachelor's BFA
    bachelor of interior architecture bachelor's degree, bachelor's BIArch
    bachelor of landscape architecture bachelor's degree, bachelor's BLA
    bachelor of music bachelor's degree, bachelor's BMus
    bachelor of music in music education bachelor's degree, bachelor's BMME
    bachelor of science bachelor's degree, bachelor's BS
    master of laws master's degree, master's LLM
    master of arts master's degree, master's MA
    master of accounting master's degree, master's MActg
    master of architecture master's degree, master's MArch
    master of business administration master's degree, master's MBA
    master of community and regional planning master's degree, master's MCRP
    master of education master's degree, master's MEd
    master of fine arts master's degree, master's MFA
    master of interior architecture master's degree, master's MIArch
    master of landscape architecture master's degree, master's MLA
    master of music master's degree, master's MMus
    master of nonprofit management master's degree, master's MNM
    master of public administration master's degree, master's MPA
    master of science master's degree, master's MS
    doctor of education doctoral degree, doctorate DEd
    doctor of musical arts doctoral degree, doctorate DMA
    doctor of jurisprudence law degree, juris doctor JD
    doctor of philosophy doctoral degree, doctorate PhD
     
  • See alumna, alumnae, alumni, alumnus, class years.

    academic and administrative titles

    • When referring to faculty titles, first check named faculty positions (click sign in with Microsoft and use your Duck ID and password, if necessary; you must have an @uoregon domain email).

      Use these named titles for first reference. For example: Jane Doe’s academic title might be associate professor, but if Jane holds a named position such as Evergreen Professor, use that named title for first reference: Evergreen Professor Jane Doe … or Jane Doe, an Evergreen Professor in the College of Education, was nominated

      It’s appropriate to use the academic title on second reference, but note it's lowercase when following the name: Jane Doe, an associate professor in the College of Education, received a grant

    • Consult the official, university-conferred title:
    • professor
    • associate professor
    • assistant professor
    • senior instructor
    • instructor
    • lecturer
    • professor of practice
    • research professor
    • senior research associate
    • research associate
    • senior research assistant
    • postdoctoral fellow
    • graduate employee
    • fellow
    • Acting, adjunct, interim, courtesy, emerita, emeritus, emerit, or visiting may also be part of the official academic title.
    • Capitalize before the name, lowercase otherwise.
      • Elizabeth Jones, vice president for student life, studied biology.
      • Before the lecture, Vice President Michael Thomas will address the group.
    • An exception is the heading or closing of a letter:

    Jane Doe
    Assistant Professor

    • When a title is used before a name as a descriptive tag it is lowercased: history professor Alex Reynolds; UO president John Wesley Johnson
    • Don't hyphenate the following titles:
      • vice chair
      • vice chancellor
      • vice president
      • vice provost
      • assistant vice provost
    • Refer to people who oversee academic or administrative units as follows:
    • Academic or Administrative Unit Title
      area coordinator
      center director
      college dean
      committee chair
      department head
      institute director
      museum director
      office director
      professional school dean
      program director
      vice presidency vice president

    academic terms

    • Use term as the general reference, and lowercase with fall term, winter term, spring term, and summer term.
    • The law school uses a semester-based calendar: fall semester, spring semester, and summer semester.

    acting vs. interim

    • acting: someone filling in for an administrator who is temporarily on leave
    • interim: someone filling in while a permanent replacement is being sought

    advisor

    • Not adviser

    affirmative action and equal opportunity

    African American or Black

    • Capitalize names of racial, linguistic, tribal, religious, and other groups of people.
    • Do not hyphenate.
    • See inclusive language.

    age

    Alaska Native

    • Capitalize names of racial, linguistic, tribal, religious, and other groups of people.
    • Do not hyphenate.
    • See inclusive language.

    alum, alumna, alumnae, alumni, alumnus

    • Singular Plural
      alumna refers to a woman
      alumnus refers to a man
      alum is informal and gender neutral
      alumnae refers to women only
      alumni refers to men or to women and men
    • Alumni is plural and always refers to more than one person. You cannot be an alumni of a university.
    • References to those who attended but did not graduate may include the graduating year of their class: John Doe, class of 2019, received an award...
    • It is also appropriate to identify as an alumnus/alumna someone who attended but did not graduate, per the definition of alumnus/alumna in Merriam-Webster: “a person who has attended or has graduated from a particular school, college, or university.”

      ampersand (&)

      • Do not use as a replacement for and in reference to UO offices or policies, or in running text: School of Journalism and Communication, Department of Computer and Information Science.
      • When considering an ampersand or plus (+) symbol, follow the style used in official contexts: School of Architecture & Environment, School of Art + Design.
      • The ampersand or plus symbol may be used in the name of a non-university business: AT&T, Wieden+Kennedy.
      • Use of the ampersand can cause issues in digital stories and web page text because the character (&) is used in HTML code for elements of the web.

      apostrophe

      • The apostrophe has three main uses: to indicate the possessive case, to stand in for missing letters or numerals, and—in rare instances—to form the plural of certain expressions: a master's degree, the Williamses' new house, but children's literature.
      • For names ending in s, the possessive is formed with an additional s: Dylan Thomas's poetry, the Ganges's source
      • To avoid ambiguity when writing about letter grades, you may need the apostrophe to distinguish A's from the word As.
      • See Chicago Manual of Style: Use of the apostrophe.

      Asian

      • Someone from the Far East, Southeast Asia, India, China, or Korea.
      • Capitalize names of racial, linguistic, tribal, religious, and other groups of people.
      • The way ethnicity is described can be a sensitive matter. If possible, consult with the person in question to see what racial reference he/she prefers.
      • See inclusive language.

      Asian American

      • The term is used to describe a person of Asian birth or descent who lives in the United States.
      • Capitalize names of racial, linguistic, tribal, religious, and other groups of people.
      • Do not hyphenate.
      • The way ethnicity is described can be a sensitive matter. If possible, consult with the person in question to see what racial reference he/she prefers.
      • See inclusive language.

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      B

      bachelor’s, bachelor’s degree, BA, BS, BFA

      Board of Trustees of the University of Oregon

      • Lowercase board of trustees unless it’s part of the formal name: the board of trustees; the board. Do not use BOT.

      book titles

      • Use italics: This year's Common Reading book is Braiding Sweetgrass: Indigenous Wisdom, Scientific Knowledge, and the Teachings of Plants by author Robin Wall Kimmerer.

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      C

      Caucasian or White

      • Capitalize names of racial, linguistic, tribal, religious, and other groups of people.
      • The way ethnicity is described can be a sensitive matter. If possible, consult with the person in question to see what racial reference he/she prefers.
      • See inclusive language.

      centers, departments, government agencies, institutes, programs, and schools

      • Capitalize only the formal names of centers, departments, government agencies, institutes, programs, and schools. There are exceptions for shortened formal names; for example, the shortened formal name of the Warsaw Sports Marketing Center is the Warsaw Center.
      • Formal Informal
        University of Oregon the university
        Center for Asian and Pacific Studies the center
        Department of Political Science the political science department
        Oregon Legislative Assembly the state legislature
      • Some administrative units include the full name of a person. In such cases there are two acceptable formal names.
      •  
      • Only a few offices include University of Oregon in their official names. They also have two references, formal and informal.
      • See schools and colleges.
      •  

      Charles H. Lundquist College of Business

      • Lundquist College of Business is preferred for first reference, then Lundquist College. Never LCB.

      Chicana, Chicano

      • Capitalize names of racial, linguistic, tribal, religious, and other groups of people.
      • Chicana is used to describe a female of Mexican birth or descent who lives in the United States.
      • Chicano is used to describe a male of Mexican birth or descent who lives in the United States.
      • Spanish rules cannot reasonably determine English usage. Latino/a and Latin@ should be avoided, and used only at the request of the subject of a piece of writing. The same rule applies for the use of Chicano/a.
      • The way ethnicity is described can be a sensitive matter. If possible, consult with the person in question to see what racial reference he/she prefers.
      • See inclusive language.

      class years

      • Include degree received, year of graduation (use an apostrophe () and not a single quote mark ()), and major (lowercase, in parentheses): Alexis Thompson, PhD 77 (psychology).
      • References to those who attended the UO but did not graduate may include the class with which they entered: David Jones, class of 2007. They can also be referred to as alumna/alumnus, etc.
      • Separate names and degree listings with commas: Thomas Morales, BA '63 (Spanish), MA '67 (English), JD '74. In running text, use a comma after the degree year: Teresa Baker, PhD '77 (physics), hosts a weekly gathering.
      • For multiple alumni in running text, use semicolons to separate each: Linda Adams, PhD '77 (political science); Howard Jones, BA '63, MA '67 (architecture), JD '74; Samuel Thomas, BS '83 (biology).
      • For couples, rewrite and reorder names as necessary for clarity of the degree holder(s): Sara and Bob Smith, BS '97 (physical education); Bob and Sara Smith, BS '92 (general science); Sara and Bob Smith are alumni—Sara, a 1992 graduate, has a bachelor's in general science, and Bob, a 1997 graduate, has a bachelor's in physical education.

      comma

      • Use the serial (Oxford) comma: She posted pictures of her parents, the president, and the vice president. See the comma entry in the Chicago Manual of Style index.

      commencement

      • capitalize only the official name of the event: I'm supporting the University of Oregon Commencement as a volunteer for commencement staff. Are you going to commencement?

      committee(s)

      • Capitalize committee only when part of a formal name: the Safety Advisory Committee.
      • Treat committee as a collective noun taking a singular verb when referring to an academic body: The committee meets every Thursday.

      Common Reading

      • Each year, the Common Reading program presents a selection as the focus of a campus-wide discussion.

      company names

      • For information on abbreviations, capitalization, and more, see company names in the Chicago Manual of Style index.

      Computer Science

      • formerly Computer and Information Science

      course listings

      • See the UO catalog for correct order and style for listing course information such as subject code and number, title, credit, and grading option.

      credit

      • Use credits rather than credit hours, hours, term credits, quarter credits, or term hours. To distinguish between a quarter system and a semester system, use quarter credits and semester credits.

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      D

      Dads' Gates

      • The wrought-iron gates greet Ducks at the north entrance of campus between the Robinson Theatre and McKenzie Hall.

      dashes

      • Use an en dash to indicate continuing or inclusive numbers in dates, times, or reference numbers: 50 BC–AD 45, 10:00 a.m.–5:00 p.m.
      • The em dash is longer than a hyphen and indicates a break in the syntax of a sentence: Of the three grading options—graded only, pass/no pass only, either graded or pass/no pass—the last option is the default.
      • Use an em dash when attributing a quote: "You can never be overdressed or overeducated." —Oscar Wilde
      • See the dashes entry in the index of the Chicago Manual of Style.

      dates

      • See the dates entry in the index of the Chicago Manual of Style for information on format, punctuation, and more.

      degrees

      Department of Global Studies

      • Formerly the Department of International Studies

        departments

        • Capitalize the formal names of departments and lowercase the informal name: the history department, the political science department, the English department, the honors college.
        • Consult the University of Oregon catalog for the correct name of departments.

        disabled

        • Refer to people with disabilities only when it is clearly pertinent: person who is visually impaired, person who is speech impaired, person who has hearing loss
        • Avoid using the handicapped, the disabled, or the differently abled.
        • Avoid descriptions that connote pity: afflicted with, suffers from, confined to a wheelchair.

        doctor, dr.

        • Don't use the courtesy title Doctor or Dr. unless the person holds a medical degree (e.g., MD, DDS, DVM).

        dorm/dormitory

        • Use residence hall instead.

        Duck Bucks

        Duck ID

        • The ID card and login credentials for most services at the University of Oregon (e.g., email, Canvas, and the UO’s wireless network and VPN services).

        Ducks

        • When referring to the various student sports teams on campus, the correct terms to use are the Oregon Ducks or the Ducks.
        • When using the team name as an adjective, use Ducks, not Duck: Ducks fans (i.e., fans of the Ducks) crowded the stands in Autzen Stadium.
        • One UO attendee, alumnus, or alumna is considered a Duck, but one is not a "Duck fan." The only exception is in the official name of an organization, such as the Duck Athletic Fund.

        DuckWeb

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          E

          Earth, the earth

          • He works in the earth sciences department.
          • Capitalize when used as the proper name of the planet: The astronauts returned to Earth.

          emeritus, emeriti, emerita, emeritae, emerit

          • Emerita and emeritus are honorary titles, denoting retirement, that follow a faculty member's academic rank: Professor Emerita Mary Smith.
          • When given after names, titles aren't capitalized: Alan Anderson, professor emeritus of Romance languages.
          • Singular: emerita refers to a woman; emeritus refers to a man
          • Plural: emeritae refers to women only; emeriti refers to men or to women and men
          • Regarding the gender-neutral emerit: refer to retired faculty as Professor Emerit (individual) and Professors Emerit by default but note that faculty may use whatever version of the title they prefer for themselves and in such instances that version should be used. The plural is emerits.

          Erb Memorial Union

          • EMU is acceptable on first reference based on the audience.

          exhibitions and works of art

          • Titles of world’s fairs and other large-scale exhibitions and fairs are capitalized but not italicized. Smaller exhibitions (e.g., at museums) are italicized: the New York World’s Fair, but: a remarkable exhibition, Motor Cycles, was mounted at the Guggenheim Museum.
          • For more information, see exhibitions in the Chicago Manual of Style.

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          F

          faculty

          • Faculty refers to a group of faculty members and multiple faculty members. Either is acceptable: The faculty is present and The faculty are present.
          • Faculty member is the singular form: The faculty member finished a research project.

          fellow

          • Capitalize only when used in reference to a specific, named fellowship: She was recently named a Fulbright Fellow. He was named a new fellow of the American Academy of Science.

          fieldwork

          first-year student

          • Use instead of freshman/freshmen when possible, although there are certain contexts that require referring to the freshman/freshmen class.

          flier vs. flyer

          • Flier is generally a person who flies.
          • Flyer is generally a paper handout.

          full-time equivalent

          • Enrollment and employment statistics are often stated in terms of full-time equivalents (FTE). Use only one digit after the decimal point.
            • 1.0 FTE is full time
            • 0.5 FTE is half time
          • FTE is acceptable on first reference.

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          G

          GE vs. GTF

          • Use graduate employee (GE) for teaching, research, and administrative graduate assistantships (not Graduate Teaching Fellow or GTF).

          gender, sex

          • Use gender to refer to sexual identity, especially in relation to society or culture: One might identify with a gender that is different from his or her sex.
          • Use sex to refer to biological categories: Is your cat male or female?
          • For more, see the usage guide in Merriam-Webster and Using Pronouns in the Division of Student Life.

          genus and species

          • Whether in lists or in running text, the Latin names of species of plants and animals are italicized. For more, see the entry genus and specific epithet in the Chicago Manual of Style.

          geographic regions

          • Capitalize north, south, east, and west when they are part of specific geographic regions or official names of organizations: The Pacific Northwest, the Far West, the West Eugene Neighborhood Association, West Coast, Oregon Coast.
          • Lowercase north, south, east, and west when they are used as general compass directions: the west entrance, the western United States, west Eugene.

          Go Ducks!

          groups of people

          • The names of racial, linguistic, tribal, religious, and other groups of people are capitalized. Don’t hyphenate them.
          • Spanish rules cannot reasonably determine English usage. Latino/a and Latin@ should be avoided, and used only at the request of the subject of a piece of writing. The same rule applies for the use of Chicano/a.
          • Greeks (capitalized) are both people from Greece and members of fraternities and sororities. The latter belong to Greek-letter organizations.
          • See inclusive language.

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          H

          handicapped

          hashtag

          • Use of the symbol (#) in running text is acceptable.

          Hayward Field at the University of Oregon

          • Hayward Field at the University of Oregon — on first reference, avoid use of "new" Hayward Field
          • Hayward Field — subsequent references, when possible, avoid use of "Hayward" as a stand alone reference
          • Historic Hayward Field — refers to Hayward Field before construction started in 2018, avoid use of "old" Hayward Field
          • Hayward Hall — interactive exhibits housed on the east side of Hayward Field

          health care

          Hispanic

          • Capitalize names of racial, linguistic, tribal, religious, and other groups of people.
          • The term is used to describe people in the United States who are descendants of countries of Latin America and Spain.
          • The way ethnicity is described can be a sensitive matter. If possible, consult with the person in question to see what racial reference he/she prefers.
          • See inclusive language.

          honors college

          hyphens

          • Don't hyphenate vice president and similar compound titles.
          • Do not hyphenate adverbs ending in -ly followed by an adjective: a highly complex issue.
          • See The Chicago Manual of Style's hyphenation guide.

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          I

          inclusive language

          • The language we use when speaking about diversity and inclusivity matters. Use this as a point of reference for the way we communicate about diversity and inclusivity. It is not meant to be rigid, exhaustive, or definitive. The goal is to create a flexible framework for using language that is empowering and respectful.
             
          • Look for authentic ways to include, portray, and integrate equity and inclusion issues and diverse populations into stories, written materials, websites, and all other communications.
             
          • Do not use offensive and derogatory terms, including such terms derived from the identity of a specific group (such as Indian giver, gypped, or Jewed), outdated terms (such as crippled), or overly clinical or medicalized terminology (such as homosexual). If you are uncertain of whether a term is derogatory, seek appropriate input.
             
          • Terminology that refers to attributes or identities such as race, gender, sexual orientation, socioeconomic status, disability, religion, age, or immigration or veteran status can adversely overemphasize an identity, feed stereotypes, or be discriminatory.
             
          • Conversely, there are times when noting a person’s identity or attribute can be an important affirmation and recognition and needs to be included.
             
          • Consider context. For example, would you include a particular characteristic or identity for any group? What is being accomplished by noting the characteristic or identity? Would you use the term white professor or heterosexual musician in this specific context?
             
          • If it is relevant and important to distinguish elements of a person’s identity, focus on the person, not the identity. For example:
             
            • A baby with Down syndrome not a Down’s baby.
            • A person living on a subsistence-level income instead of Jane Doe is low-income.
               
          • When possible, be as specific as you can to describe people. For example:
             
            •  Chinese rather than Asian
            •  Guatemalan instead of Hispanic
            •  Lesbian or transgender rather than LGBTQIA.
            • When in doubt, ask a person how they would like to be identified, which includes what pronouns they prefer.
            • Consult with the appropriate style guide for the type of writing you are doing to determine how best to identify the proper names of nationalities, peoples, and races.
               
          • Make room for a person’s complex identity and the complexity of different communities. For example:
             
            • A veteran or a person who uses a wheelchair may also be part of the lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender communities.
            • Muslims, Latinos, Jews, and others may be from many different races, ethnicities, or geographic origins.
               
          • Weigh the use of general or specific terms when referencing places of worship, events, or holidays, so as not to exclude any group or perspective, but be specific when the instance requires. For example:
             
            • When discussing religious buildings or institutions generally, use a general term such as place of worship or house of prayer; if a religion is specified, use the particular term (such as mosque, synagogue, church, chapel, and so forth).
            • When discussing the calendar or date ranges, reference the season of the year (e.g., winter) rather than a specific holiday; if a religious holiday is specified, use the particular term (such as Christmas, Rosh Hashanah, or Eid al-Fitr).

          internet

          • Do not capitalize.

          IntroDUCKtion

          • The University of Oregon's orientation program for new students.

          italics

          • Italics are used for titles of books, genera and species, long plays, periodicals, movies, newspapers, operas and other long musical compositions, ships, and works of art: Woolf's To the Lighthouse; Bizet's Carmen; O'Keeffe's Cow's Skull, Red, White, and Blue; Shaw's Major Barbara; Wertmuller's Seven Beauties
          • Titles of television and radio series are italicized: National Public Radio's All Things Considered. But titles of individual episodes are placed in quotation marks: "Eye of the Beholder," Rod Serling's classic episode of The Twilight Zone, was a high point for the series.
          • Some musical compositions are known by their generic titles—symphony, quartet, nocturne—and often a number or key or both. Such names are capitalized but not italicized: Beethoven's Piano Sonata No. 14 in C-sharp minor, Op. 25, but Moonlight Sonata
          • For more, see the italics entry in the index of the Chicago Manual of Style.

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          L

            Latin Honors

            The terms are always lowercase and not italicized: Jami Jones graduated summa cum laude.

            • Latin Honor Meaning Percentile Rankings
              cum laude with honors Top 10 percent
              magna cum laude with high honors Top 5 percent
              summa cum laude with highest honors Top 2 percent

            Latina, Latino

            • Capitalize names of racial, linguistic, tribal, religious, and other groups of people.
            • Latina is used to describe a female in the United States who are descendants of countries of Latin America and Spain.
            • Latino is used to describe a male in the United States who are descendants of countries of Latin America and Spain.
            • Spanish rules cannot reasonably determine English usage. Latino/a and Latin@ should be avoided, and used only at the request of the subject of a piece of writing. The same rule applies for the use of Chicano/a.
            • The way ethnicity is described can be a sensitive matter. If possible, consult with the person in question to see what racial reference he/she prefers.
            • See inclusive language.

            lectures

            • The titles of lecture series and individual lecture titles are capitalized in headline style.
            • The titles of lecture series are not italicized. Individual lecture titles are enclosed in quotation marks: We went to the African American Workshop Lecture Series. The lecture was called “Teaching for Tomorrow.”
            • See italics.

            lists

            • Short, simple lists are usually better run in, especially if the introductory text and the items in the list together form a sentence. Lists that require typographic prominence, that are relatively long, or that contain multiple levels should be set vertically.
            • A run-in list: The qualifications are as follows: a doctorate in physics, five years’ experience in a national laboratory, and an ability to communicate technical matter to a lay audience. For punctuation, see Run-in lists in the Chicago Manual of Style.
            • Vertical lists are best introduced by a grammatically complete sentence, followed by a colon. There are two basic types: (1) unordered, in which the items are introduced by a bullet or other such marker or by nothing at all, and (2) ordered, in which items are introduced by numbers or letters. See vertical listscapitalization, punctuation, and format in the Chicago Manual of Style.

            Lyllye Reynolds-Parker Black Cultural Center

            • Use the official name for first reference.
            • For second and subsequent references, use Black Cultural Center, the center, or BCC.

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            M

            mailing address

            • Spell out state names unless space is restricted or when giving a mailing address: The university is located in Eugene, Oregon.
            • Use the two-letter United States Postal Service abbreviations (e.g., OR) in mailing addresses; don’t insert a comma between the city and the state: Direct inquiries to the Office of Affirmative Action and Equal Opportunity, 474 Oregon Hall; send mail to 5221 University of Oregon, Eugene OR 97403-5221.
            • See UO Addresses/How to Address UO Mail.
            • For more, visit mailing addresses: postal vs. standard abbreviations in the Chicago Manual of Style.

            majors/minors

            • Lowercase except for proper nouns or adjectives: He has a major in Japanese and a minor in dance.

            master’s, MA, MS, MBA, MFA

            McArthur Court

            • Do not use "historic." Mac Court can be acceptable, consider context.

            Mexican American

            • Capitalize names of racial, linguistic, tribal, religious, and other groups of people.
            • Do not hyphenate.
            • The term is used to describe an American of full or partial Mexican descent.
            • The way ethnicity is described can be a sensitive matter. If possible, consult with the person in question to see what racial reference he/she prefers.
            • See inclusive language.

            movie titles

            • Italics are used: Wertmuller's Seven Beauties.
            • See titles.

            musical composition titles

            • Italics are used for titles of operas, oratorios, tone poems, and other long musical compositions: Bizet's Carmen.
            • Use double quotation marks before and after titles of songs and other shorter musical compositions: “All You Need Is Love” is a song by the Beatles.
            • See titles. For more, see Operas, songs, and the like in the Chicago Manual of Style.

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            N

            newspaper titles

            • Italics are used for titles of newspapers: the Register-Guard (note the name is hyphenated), the New York Times.
            • When newspapers and periodicals are mentioned in text, an initial the, even if part of the official title, is lowercased (unless it begins a sentence) and not italicized: the Register-Guard (note the name is hyphenated), the New York Times.
            • See titles.

            North African

            • Capitalize names of racial, linguistic, tribal, religious, and other groups of people.
            • Do not hyphenate.
            • The term is used to describe a person from the group of Mediterranean countries situated in the northern-most region of the African continent.
            • The way ethnicity is described can be a sensitive matter. If possible, consult with the person in question to see what racial reference he/she prefers.
            • See inclusive language.

            numbers

            • In nontechnical contexts, Chicago advises spelling out whole numbers from zero through one hundred and certain round multiples of those numbers. For more, visit Numbers.

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            O

            Oregon Bach Festival

            • On second reference, OBF or the festival is acceptable.

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            P

            Pac-12

            • Common abbreviation for the Pacific-12 Conference.
            • Do not put Pac in all caps.

            Pacific Islander

            • Capitalize names of racial, linguistic, tribal, religious, and other groups of people.
            • Do not hyphenate.
            • The term is used to describe a person having origins in any of the original peoples of Hawaii, Guam, Samoa, or other Pacific Islands.
            • The way ethnicity is described can be a sensitive matter. If possible, consult with the person in question to see what racial reference he/she prefers.
            • See inclusive language.

            Pacific Northwest

            • Capitalize when talking about the specific geographic region.
            • PNW is acceptable in some contexts; consider audience.

            PathwayOregon

            • One word, no space, note capitalization.

            periodical titles

            • Italics are used for titles of periodicals: the Journal of the American Medical Association.
            • See titles.

            Phil and Penny Knight Campus for Accelerating Scientific Impact

            • Knight Campus is acceptable on second reference.

            play titles

            • Italics are used for titles of plays: She Kills Monsters is being staged in the Miller Theatre Complex.
            • See titles.

            plural words

            poem titles

            • Quotation marks are used for titles of poems: Robert Frost’s poem “The Housekeeper.”
            • See titles.

            programs

            • Capitalize the full name of official programs or projects: Creative Writing Program, but Common Reading program.
            • Always lowercase program when the word stands alone or when using only part of the formal name.

            pronouns

            1. Omit the pronoun: The programmer should update the records (works only if there is one programmer).
            2. Repeat the noun, but not too much.
            3. Use a plural antecedent: Programmers should update the records.
            4. Use an article: A student accused of cheating must actively waive the right to have a guidance counselor present (instead of “his or her right”).
            5. Use the pronoun one. An actor in New York is likely to earn more than one in Paducah.
            6. Use the pronoun who. Employers presume that if an applicant can’t write well, he won’t be a good employee becomes Employers presume that an applicant who can’t write well won’t be a good employee.
            7. Use imperative mode: A lifeguard must keep a close watch over children while he is monitoring the pool becomes Keep a close watch over children while monitoring the pool.
            8. Use he or she, in moderation.
            9. Recast the sentence.

            punctuation

            • See the entry on punctuation in the index of the Chicago Manual of Style.

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            Q

            quarters, terms

            • Lowercase academic quarters: spring quarter, winter quarter.
            • See academic term.

            quotation marks

            • Quotation marks are used for titles of speeches: Martin Luther King Jr.’s “I Have a Dream” speech.
            • Informal titles of speeches do not use quotation marks: the annual State of the Union address, the Gettysburg Address, Franklin Roosevelt’s second inaugural address.
            • See the entry for quotation marks in the index of the Chicago Manual of Style.

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            R

            rankings

            • Use No. as the abbreviation for number to indicate position or rank: The UO College of Education Special Education Program is ranked No. 1 in US News and World Report’s annual rankings of graduate schools in education.

            residence hall

            • Use instead of dorm/dormitory.

            rooms and spaces

            • The word room is often unnecessary in addresses: 101 Chapman Hall
            • If you use it after a room name, it should be capitalized: Walnut Room, Erb Memorial Union

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            S

            schools and college

            Formal Name Second Reference Building
            College of Arts and Sciences CAS Willie and Donald Tykeson Hall
            College of Design the college, the design college Lawrence Hall
            College of Education COE HEDCO Education Building
            Lundquist College of Business Lundquist College (never LCB) Lillis Hall (the Lillis Business Complex comprises Peterson, Anstett, Chiles, and Lillis halls)
            Robert D. Clark Honors College Clark Honors College, then CHC Chapman Hall
            School of Journalism and Communication SOJC Allen Hall
            School of Law Oregon Law William W. Knight Law Center
            School of Music and Dance SOMD MarAbel B. Frohnmayer Music Building

            School of Planning, Public Policy and Management

            • Note the use of one comma. There are only two items in the series: (1) planning, (2) public policy and (public) management.

            semester

            • Use semester as the general reference to any academic semester at the School of Law.

            ships

            • Italics are used for ships: The Oregon Institute of Marine Biology operates the R/V Pluteus, a 42-foot aluminum-hull trawler.
            • For more, see the italics entry in the index of the Chicago Manual of Style.

            slash

            • See the entry on slashes in the index of the Chicago Manual of Style.

            staff

            • Staff refers to a collective body of people, is a singular noun, and requires a singular verb unless there's more than one staff: Welcome to our staff. Some staffs have thirty employees, some only one.
            • Use staff member (singular) or staff members (plural) to refer to individuals: Do you need one staff member or two this weekend? Our staff members are always ready to help you.

            start-up

            state names

            student worker

            student-athlete

            subject codes

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            T

            telephone numbers

            • Use hyphens only, not parentheses: 541-346-5397.
            • Use of the on‑campus five-digit number (6 + last four digits) is acceptable for internal communications but use the ten-digit number otherwise.

            The Ballmer Institute for Children's Behavioral Health

            • Capitalize "The" for first reference, even mid-sentence: On March 1, the University of Oregon announced the establishment of The Ballmer Institute for Children’s Behavioral Health.
            • Second and subsequent references: the Ballmer Institute, the institute

            The Duck

            • The proper name of the mascot for the University of Oregon athletics teams is the Oregon Duck or the Duck. The Duck should never be referred to as Puddles, although some media outlets still use this outdated name.
            • For a history, visit "The Oregon Duck: College Football's Most Lovable Mascot."

            The Duck Store

            theater

            • Use theater except for the names of theaters that use the variant spelling: Robinson Theatre, University Theatre, and James F. Miller Theatre Complex. Also: Department of Theatre Arts, but in that department one studies theater arts.

            time of day

            titles

            • Follow headline style when capitalizing the first letters of words in titles.
            • Capitalize the first letter of all other words except for those functioning as articles, prepositions, and some conjunctions: A River Runs Through It (the preposition "through" is emphasized), Rebel without a Cause, Four Theories concerning the Gospel according to Matthew.
            • When newspapers and periodicals are mentioned in text, an initial the, even if part of the official title, is lowercased (unless it begins a sentence) and not italicized: the Register-Guard, the New York Times.
            • Capitalize formal names of academic courses per standard capitalization rules for titles (do not italicize or place in quotation marks): Introduction to Biological Anthropology has no prerequisite.
            • Italicize titles of television series: The Twilight Zone.
            • Video game titles are treated like movies: Nintendo’s Mario Bros.
            • Italics are used for titles of paintings, drawings, photographs, statues, and other works of art: The painted aluminum piece Overlap, by Mel Katz, is on display in the Jordan Schnitzer Museum of Art.
            • Titles of theses and dissertations appear in quotation marks—not in italics; otherwise, they are cited like books. 
            • See academic and administrative titlesbook titles, movie titles, musical composition titles, periodical titles, play titles, poem titlesvideo game titles.
            • For more, see capitalization of titles of works—general principles in the Chicago Manual of Style.

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            U

            United States, USA, US

            • The abbreviation is US, not U.S. Use USA only in titles or within quoted material.

            University Health Services

            University of Oregon

            • Spell out the first reference to the University of Oregon. Use the UO, Oregon, or the university to abbreviate subsequent references. Use of "U of O" and other variations are acceptable when used in quoted material: Denise, who is applying to schools in the Pacific Northwest, says: "My top choice is U of O." 
            • See mailing address.

            University of Oregon Alumni Association

            • On second reference: the alumni association, the association.

            University of Oregon Athletics

            • Second and subsequent references: athletics, UO athletics, the athletics department
            • Team names are lowercase: The University of Oregon Ducks football team went undefeated last season. The Oregon women’s basketball program is ranked No. 1 in the nation. Ducks softball and baseball start in the spring.

            University of Oregon Foundation

            • On second reference: the foundation.

            University of Oregon Libraries

            • UO Libraries is also acceptable.
            • The name of its building is the Knight Library.

            University of Oregon Portland

            • From the time the law school was established in Portland in the 1880s, the UO has offered academic and research programs in Portland that focus on hands-on learning, professional mentorship, and connection to businesses, nonprofits, and civic organizations.
            • All operations in Portland are moving to a new campus, with completion expected by fall 2024. Programs are currently housed in the White Stag Block, or 109 NW Naito buildings.
            • UO Portland is acceptable on second reference.

            university-wide

            • Hyphenate when used as an adjective: the university-wide event.

            UO Online

            UOmail

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            W

            works of art

            • Italics are used for titles of paintings, drawings, photographs, statues, and other works of art: The painted aluminum piece Overlap, by Mel Katz, is on display in the Jordan Schnitzer Museum of Art.
            • The names of works of antiquity (whose creators are often unknown) are not italicized: the Venus de Milo.
            • See titles.

            work-study

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            Y

            years

            • Use an en dash (–) between the first and second number to denote inclusive dates in a range: 2016–17. Use "to" when you use "from": I served on the committee from 1978 to 1988, but I was gone for the 1980–83 period.
            • When abbreviating the year, use an apostrophe () and not a single quote mark (): Tyler Smith, BA 87 (psychology).
            • Refer to The Chicago Manual of Style for other rules on writing inclusive years.
            • See class years.

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